History

Europe’s history is fascinating with events and people that have changed civilization and the world forever.  While some have move civilization forward for the better, others have caused great destruction and death. Many conflicts arose over the struggles for power, religion, wealth, commerce and logistics. Europe is an immense history book on many subjects. Great civilizations, the arts, religion, war, politics, commerce, sciences & exploration are all a big part of Europe, past and present. The more you understand about what you are looking at when visiting Europe, the more you will come away with an appreciation and comprehension of what you have seen. What role did this place play in history and how did affect us and the time we live in? What were artists trying to convey to us in their paintings and sculptures? What roll did certain buildings or structures perform and why were they built? So many questions can be answered when you have a little background about the places you plan to visit. This is why small tours are helpful when visiting important sites. A good guide can be informative, bring more meaning to your tour.

Listed are events within their time periods, famous Europeans and important eras for architecture, art, music and philosophy. As you visit many sights you’ll be confronted with a lot of the terminology below. Familiarity with the events, people and the eras in which they lived in will provide a greater understanding to what you see and hear on your visit.

Significant Historical Timelines in European History…

Historical Age Timelines…

3000 BCE – 1050 BCE Bronze Age 
Early Aegean Civilization (Crete, Greece and Near East)
050 BCE – c. 500 AD Iron Age 
1050 BCE – 776 BCE Greek expansion and colonization
776 BCE – 480 BCE Archaic Greece
• 776 BCE – 612 BCE Archaic period (the establishment of city-states in Greece)
• 612 BCE – 480 BCE Classical period
480 BCE – 476 AD Classical antiquity
• 480 BCE – 476 AD Classical Greece 
• 338 BCE – 323 BCE Macedonian era 
• 323 BCE – 146 BCE Hellenistic Greece
• 47 BCE – 27 BCE Late Roman Republic
• 27 BCE – 284 AD Principate of the Roman Empire 
• 27 BCE – 96 AD Early Roman Empire
• 96 BCE– 192 AD High Roman Empire
• 192 AD – 337 AD Late Roman Empire
• 284 AD – 500 AD Late Antiquity
300 AD – 700 AD Europe Migration Period 
476–1453 European Middle Ages
330–1453 Byzantine era 
• 527 – 726 Early Byzantine
• 726 – 843 Iconoclasm
• 843 – 1204 Middle Byzantine
• 1204 – 1453 Late Byzantine
476–1066 Early European Middle Ages 
476-1024 Early France & Germany
• 476 – 751 Merovingian
• 751 – 936 Carolingian
• 936 – 1024 Ottonian
793–1066 Viking Age (Scandinavia, Europe)
963 – 1120 Romanesque
1066 – 1300 High European Middle Ages 
140 – 1500 Gothic Period
• 1140 – 1194 Early Gothic
• 1194 – 1300 High Gothic
• 1300 – 1500 Gothic
300 – 1453 Late European Middle Ages
1453–1789 Early European modern period 
c. 1300 – c. 1601 The Renaissance Europe
• 1401 – 1490 Early Renaissance
• 1430 – 1580 Northern Renaissance
• 1490 – 1527 High Renaissance
1400 – 1770 Age of Exploration
1507–1572 Polish Golden Age (Poland)
1650–1730 Golden Age of Piracy 
1558–1603 Elizabethan era (the United Kingdom)
1517 – 1648 Protestant Reformation
16th – 18th centuries Classicism
1543 – 1632 Scientific Revolution (Europe)
1584 – 1723 Baroque Period
1600 – 1800 Industrious Revolution
1600 – 1672 Dutch Golden Age
1603–1625 Jacobean era (the United Kingdom)
1637 – 1804 Age of Enlightenment (or Reason)
1689–1725) Petrine Era (Russia)
1702 – 1780) Rococo Era
1789–1914 Long 19th century 
1714–1830 Georgian era (the United Kingdom)
1760 – 1840 Industrial Revolution (Europe, United States)
1800 – 1975 Age of European colonialism and imperialism
1770–1850 Romantic era
1799–1815 Napoleonic era 
1837–1901 Victorian era (the United Kingdom)
1815-1914 British hegemony 
1901–1914 Edwardian era (the United Kingdom)
1914 – 1917 First World War
1932 – 1938 The Depression
1939 – 1945 Second World War 
1945–1991 Cold War 
1991–present Post-Cold War / Postmodernity 

Historical Event Timeline…

B.C.E. (before common era)
43,000 – 40,000 BCE First Cro-Magnons appear in Europe
ca. 40,000 – 2,000 BCE The construction of Stonehenge
3000 BCE – 600 BCE Bronze Age in Europe
2700 – 1600 BCE – Minoan Civilization
• 2000 – 1700 BCE – Old Palace period
• 1700 – 1400 BCE – New Palace period
• 1400 – 1200 BCE – Post Palatial period
1628 BCE – Eruption of Theran (Santorini)
1600 – 1100 BCE – Mycenae Civilization
• 1200 BCE – Destruction of Mycenaean Palaces
800 BCE – 600 AD Classical Europe Antiquity Age
800 BCE – 400 AD Iron Age in Europe
776 BCE – First Olympic Games
768 BCE – 264 BCE Etruscan Civilization
753 BCE – Founding of Roman State
510 – 323 BCE Classical Greece
• 480 – 450 Early Classical / 450 – 400 High Classical / 400 – 323 Late Classical
509 – 27 BCE – Roman Republic & expulsion of Etruscans from Rome
490 – 479 BCE Persian Wars 490 BCE
• Battle of Marathon 
431 BCE – 404 BCE – Peloponnessian War
431 BCE – Battle of Syracuse
336 – 323 BCE – Alexander the Great’s reign
323 – 31 BCE Hellenistic Greece
281 BCE – 203 BCE 2nd Punic Wars
207 BCE – Battle of Mataurus
146 BCE – 3rd Punic War, Rome destroys Carthage & conquers Greece
49 BCE – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon & Civil War
44 BCE – Julius Caesar Murdered: End of Roman Republic and beginning of Empire
27 BCE – 476 AD Roman Empire west
• 27 BCE – 96 CE Early Roman Empire / 96 – 192 High Roman Empire / 192 – 337 Late Roman Empire
AD (anno domini)
1st to 9th Centuries
9 – Battle of Teutoburg Forest
79 – Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
285 – Dioceltian becomes emperor and splits the Roman Empire into Eastern & Western Empires
313 – Edict of Milan: Constantine accepts Christianity
330 – 1453 Roman Empire East, Constantinople becomes its capitol
330 – 1453 Byzantine
• 527 726 Early Byzantine / 726 – 843 Iconoclasm / 843 – 1204 Middle Byzantine
1204 – 1453 Late Byzantine
300 – 700 – Age of Migrations
• 300 – 500 1st wave – The Goths
• 500 – 700 2nd wave – Early Slavs
410 – Rome sacked by Visigoths
455 – Rome sacked by the Vandals
476 – End of Western Roman Empire
480 – Last Roman Emperor Julius Nepos dies
500 – 843 Frankish Kingdom
529 – Benedict establishes Rule for Monasteries & Founded Order of St. Benedict “Benedictines”
600 – 1000 Rise of Towns & Commerce
602 – 628 Byzantine-Sasanian War
681 – 1018 1st Bulgarian Empire
697 – 1797 Republic of Venice
793 – 1066 Viking Age
711 – Moors conquest of Visigothic Hispania
718 -1492 The Reconquista
768 – 814 Reign of Charlemagne
10th Century
910 – Cluny Abbey is founded by William I, Count of Auvergne
929 – 1031 Caliphate of Cordoba
936 – 973 Reign of Otto the Great
962 – 1806 Holy Roman Empire
985 – Eric the Red exiled from Iceland, colonizes Greenland
11th Century
1000-1301 – Kingdom of Hungary
1042 – Building of Westminster Abbey starts
1054 – Esat-West Schism between Roman Catholic & Greek Orthodox churches
1060 – 1101 – Norman conquest of Sicily & southern Italy
• 1066 – Battle of Hastings – Norman conquest of England
1077 – Construction of London Tower begins
1096 – 1300 The Crusades
1096 – 1099 1st Crusade
1099 – Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem founded “Knights Hospitaller”
12th Century
1117 – University of Oxford founded
1118 – Supreme Order of Christ founded “Knights Templar”
1147 – 1149 2nd Crusade
1185 – 1396 2nd Bulgarian Empire
1189 – 1192 3rd Crusade
1192 – Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem Founded “Teutonic Knights”
13th Century
1200 – University of Paris founded
1202 – 1204 4th Crusade
1204 – Siege of Constantinople
1209 – University of Cambridge founded
1209 – Order of Friars Minor “Franciscans” founded
1215 – Magna Carta signed by John of England
1215 – Order of Preachers “Dominican” founded
1217 – 1221 5th Crusade
1228 – 1229 6th Crusade
1237 – Mongol invasions of Eastern Europe
1239 – 1241 Baron’s Crusade
1244 –  Order of Saint Augustine founded “Augustinians”
1248 – 1254 7th Crusade
1261 – 1453 Byzantine Empire
1270 – 8th Crusade
1271 – 1272 9th Crusade
1271 – 1292 Marco Polo in China
1291 Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel “Carmelties” founded
14th Century
1300 – 1700 The Renaissance
1305 – Papacy moved to Avignon
1315 – 1317 – The Great Famine
1337 – 1453 – Hundred Years’ War: War between English Plantagenet rulers and French house of Valois
• 1429 – Joan of Arc’s victory over British at Orleans
• 1431 – Trail & Execution of Joan of Arc
1348 – 1350 Bubonic Plague (Black Death)
1378 – 1417 Great Papal Schism
1382 – John Wycliffe translates Bible into English
1397 – Kalmar Union: Unites Denmark Sweden & Norway
15th Century
1400 – Canterberry Tales published
1440 – Guttenberg Printing Press
1453 – 1917 Ottoman Empire – Fall of Constantinople to Ottomans, end of Byzantine Empire
1455 – 1487 War of the Roses in England
1486 – Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope
1488- 1763 The Age of Exploration
1492 – Alhambra Decree ends Muslim rule on Iberian peninsula
1492 – 1660 Age of Exploration
1492 – Columbus lands in San Salvador
1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope divides the world outside of Europe between Portugal & Spain
1497 – 1499 Vasco da Gama reaches India
16th Century
1502 – 1659 Spanish Wars 
1512 – 1559 Franco-Imperial Wars
1517 – Luther posts 95 Theses
1519 – 1522 Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation of the earth
1526 – 1804 Habsburg Monarchy
1529 – 1534 Henry VIII leads Church of England to Angelican
1534 – 1980 French Colonial Empire
1540 – Society of Jesus “Jesuites” founded
1545 – 1573 Counter Reformation – Council of Trent
1553 – 1558 Reign of Bloody Mary Tudor
1562 – 1629 French Wars of Religion & Civil Wars
1566 – 1684 Spanish conflict with Dutch
1583 – 1997 British Empire
1588 – Defeat of the Spanish Armada
1598 – Edict of Nantes – Henry IV of France grants rights to Protestants
17th Century
1609 – Galileo constructs the telescope
1616 – 1648 Thirty Years War
• 1648 Treaty of Westphalia
1642 – 1651 English Civil War
1649 – 1653 Oliver Cromwell reign in England: after Charles I is executed 1649
1661 – 1789 Age of Absolutism
1666 – The Great London Fire
1688 – The Glorious Revolution – Overthrow of James II by English Parliamentarians
18th Century
1701 – 1713 War of Spanish Succession -ends with Peace of Utrecht 1713
1703 – Peter the Great founds St. Petersburg
1740 – 1748 War of Austrian Succession – ends with Pragmatic Sanction
1740 – 1796 Era of Enlighten Rulers
1760 – 1870 Industrial Revolution
1775 – 1880 Age of Enlightenment
1783 – Montgolfier Brothers fly 1st hot air balloon
1789 – French Revolution
19th Century
1803 – 1815 Napoleonic Wars
• 1805 – Battle of Austerlitz – Napoleons greatest victory
• 1815 – Battle of Waterloo – Napoleons final defeat
1815 – 1932 European Diaspora
1821 – 1832 Greek War of Independence from Ottomans
1833 – Slavery Abloshed in British Empire
1845 – 1849 The Great Famine Ireland
1848 – Revolutions of 1848
1848 – 1871 Unification of Germany
1848 – Marx publishes Communist Manifesto
1851 – The Great Exhibition in London
1853 – 1856 Crimean War
1858 – Transatlantic Cable
1859 – Darwin’s Theory of Evolution published
1863 – London Underground opens
1866 – Austro-Prussian War
1870 – 1871 Franco Prussian War
1871 – Unification of Italy
1877 – 1878 Russo-Turkish War
1888 – Jack the Ripper murders in London
1889 – Eiffel Tower inaugurated in Paris
1896 – First Modern Olympic Games are held in Athens
20th Century
1901 – First Nobel prizes awarded
1903 – First Tour de France is held
1912 – RMS Titanic Disaster
1914 – 1919 World War I
• 6/28/1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
• Aug. 1914 – Nov. 1918 War on the Western Front
• Aug. 1914 – Mar. 1918 War on the Eastern Front
• 1915 – RMS Lusitania Torpedoed
• Feb. 1915- Jan. 1916 Gallipoli Campaign
• Oct. 1914 – Oct. 1918 Middle Eastern Campaign
• 11/11/1918 Germany signs the Armistice of Compiègne
• Jan. – July 1919 Treaty of Versailles
1917 – Russian Revolution – End of Tsarist rule in Russia
1929 – 1939 Great Depression
1929 – 1937 Soviet Deportations & Collectivizations
1932 – 1933 Holodomor Famine in the Soviet Union
1933 – Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
1936 – 1939 Spanish Civil War
1937 – 1939 The Great Purge in the Soviet Union
1939 – 1945 World War II
• Sep. 1939 Germany invades Poland /
• Apr. 1940 Germany invades Denmark & Norway
• May 1940 Germany attacks France, Belgium, Netherlands & Luxembourg
• May-June 1940 Dunkirk
• Jun.14. 1940 Germany occupies Paris
• Jun.22,1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union
• Sep. 1941-Jan.1944 Siege of Leningrad
• Aug. 1942 – Feb.1943 Battle of Stalingrad
• Jun.6 1944 D-Day
• May 8, 1945 Germany surrenders
• Nov. 1945 – Oct.1946 Nuremberg Tribunal
1939 – 1945 The Holocaust
1947 – 1989 Cold War
1948 – 1949 Berlin Blockade
1949 – Formation of NATO
1957 – USSR launched Sputnik into space
1961 – Construction of the Berlin Wall
1985 – Schengen Agreement
1986 – Chernobyl Disaster
1989 – Fall of the Berlin Wall
1990 – German Reunification
1991 – Soviet Union Offically Ceased
1993 – European Union – Maastricht Treaty
21st Century
2002 – Adoption of the Euro
2016 – The Czech Republic approves a wider use of the name Czechia
2016 – The United Kingdom votes to exit the European Union
2019 – The former Republic of Macedonia officially changes its name to the Republic of North Macedonia
2020-2021 – World wide pandemic of Covid 19 virus
2021 – The United Kingdom finalizes the exit from the European Union

Art Period Timeline…

before 500 Ancient Art (Minoan, Greek & Roman)
260 -1400 Medieval
260 – 525 Early Christian
313 – 1261 Byzantine
700 – 1100 Viking
1000 – 1200 Romanesque
1100 – 1400 Gothic
1300 – 1602 Renaissance
1300 – 1600 Italian Renaissance
1430 – 1580 Northern Renaissance
1520 – 1600 Mannerism
1520 – 1830 Renaissance to Neoclassicism
1600 – 1730 Baroque
1585 – 1702 Dutch Golden Age
1720 – 1780 Rococo
1750 – 1830 Neoclassicism
1780 – 1850 Romanticism
1803 – 1900 Romanticism to modern art
1830 – 1870 Realism
1860 – 1945 Modern Art
1872 – 1892 Impressionism
1880 – 1910 Symbolism
1880 – 1914 Post-Impressionism
1890 – 1905 Art Nouveau
1900 – 1945 Art Deco
1899 – 1908 Fauvism
1905 – 1933 Expressionism
1907 – 1922 Cubist
1916 – 1924 Dada
1915 – 1930 Constructivism
1919 – 1933 Bauhaus
1920 – 1960 Social Realism & Socialism
1924 – 1966 Surrealism
1940’s – Abstract
1946 – Contemporary Art
1960 – Minimalism
1960’s – Psychedelic
1960’s – Graffiti

Music Period Timeline…

before 500 Ancient
800 – 1400 Middle Ages
800 – 1000 Early Medieval
900 – 1300 Polyphony
1100 – 1300 Secular
1300 – 1400 Late Medieval
1400 – 1600 Renaissance
1600 – 1750 Baroque
1750 – 1825 Classical
1825 – 1920 Romantic 
1920 – 2000 Modern Music

Philosophy Period Timeline…

624 – 379 BCE Pre-Socratic
370 – 43 BCE Ancient
400 -1400 Medieval
1350 -1650 Renaissance
1600 – 1925 Modern
1875 – present Contemporary

The lists below itemizes those empires, kingdoms, duchies, states or principalities that would control their own sovereignty. The second lists are those who were either a vassal or state of another empire or kingdom. They would be obligated to the superior state or empire. Some empires can still exist today because they occupy or have administrative power over foreign countries or territories.

Time Period Span – Name of State – Area of Origin – Capital

334 – 323 BC     Macedonian Empire – Macedonia – Pella
27 BC – 1453     Roman Empire – Italy – Rome, Constantinople
250 – 950     Frankish Empire – Western Europe – Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen
260 – 272     Gallic Empire – Rhineland-Palatinate – Colonia Aprippina (cologne), Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
286 – 296     Britannic Empire – Britain – Londinium
370 – 469     Hunnic Empire – Central Europe – Pliska, Preslav, Skopie, Ohrid & Bitola
395 – 1453     Byzantine Empire – Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria, Italy – Constantinople
395 – 476     Western Roman Empire – Italy – Mediolanum, Ravenna
418 – 721     Visigothic Kingdom – Spain, France – Toulouse, Narbonne, Barcelona, Toledo
475 – 553     Ostrogothic Kingdom – Italy, Croatia, Slovenia – Ravenna
681 – 1018     1st Bulgarian Empire – Balkans – 
697 – 1797     Venice, Republic – NE Italy, Croatia, Greece, Cyprus – Venice 
754 – 1870     Papal States – Italy – Rome 
756 – 1031     Caliphate of Córdoba – Iberian Peninsula – Córdoba
824 – 1841    Navarre – Northeast Spain – Pamplona
833 – 900     Great Moravian Empire – Central Europe – Mikulčice-Valy 
843 – 1482     Scotland, Kingdom – Northern Isle of Britain – Edinburgh
962 – 1806     Holy Roman Empire – Central Europe – Vienna, Regensburg, Wetzlar
1000 – 1946    Hungary, Kingdom – Hungary, Romania, Balkans – Esztergom, Temesvár, Visegrád, Budapest
1005 – 1797    Genoa, Republic – NW Italy, Genoa
1016 – 1035     North Sea Empire – Denmark – Copenhagen
1025 – 1569     Poland, Kingdom – Poland – Gniezno, Poznań, Płock, Kraków
1035 – 1707     Aragon, Kingdom – Iberian Peninsula – Jaca, Huesca, Zaragoza
1065 – 1230     Castile, Kingdom – Central Iberian peninsula – no capital
1115 – 1532     Florence, Republic – Tuscany, Italy – Florence
1121 – 1269     Almohad Caliphate – Morocco – Marrakech, Seville
1154 – 1242     Angevin Empire – England, France – Angers, Chinon
1185 – 1422     2nd Bulgarian Empire – Balkans – Pliska, Preslav, Skopie & Ohrid
1204 – 1261     Latin Empire – Thrace Asia Minor – Constantinople
1226 – 1525    Tuetonic, State – Poland, Baltic states –  Marienburg, Konigsberg
1229 – 1922     Ottoman Empire – Anatolia – Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul
1238 – 1547     Moscow, Grand Duchy – Russia – Moscow
1251 – 1263     Lithuania, Kingdom – Lithuania – Kernavé
1282 – 1816     Naples, Kingdom -Southern Italy – Naples
1330 – 1859     Wallachia, Principality – Romania – Câmpulung, Curtea de Argeș, Târgoviște, Bucharest
1346 – 1371     Serbian Empire – Balkans – Skopje, Prizren
1346 – 1859     Moldavian, Principality – Moldavia, Romania – Baia, Siret, Suceava, Iași 
1397 – 1523    Kalmar Union – Demark, Sweden, Norway, Iceland – Roskilde, Copenhagen
1402 – 1975     Spanish Empire – Iberian Peninsula – Madrid
1415 – 1999     Portugueses Empire   Portugal 
1525 – 1947    Prussia, Kingdom, Duchy – Germany, Poland, Baltic States – Konigsberg, Berlin
1534 -present  French Colonial Empire – France – Paris
1536 – 1953     Danish Colonial Empire – Denmark – Copenhagen
1568 – 1975     Dutch Empire – Netherlands – Amsterdam
1569 – 1795    Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine – Kraków, Warsaw 
1580 – 1997     British Empire –  England – London
1611 – 1721     Swedish Empire – Sweden – Stockholm
1712 – 1917     Russian Empire – Russia – St. Petersburg
1804 – 1815     1st French Empire – France – Paris
1804 – 1867     Austrian Empire – Austria – Vienna
1852 – 1870     2nd French Empire – France – Paris
1867 – 1918     Austria-Hungary – Austria, Hungary – Vienna, Budapest
1871 – 1918     German Empire – Germany – Berlin
1881 – 1947     Romania, Kingdom – Romania – Bucharest, Iași 
1885 – 1943     Italian Empire – Italy – Rome
1910 – 1962    Belgian Colonial Empire – Belgium – Brussels
1922 – 1991 Soviet Union – Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia.
1922 – 1937     Irish Free State – Ireland – Dublin
1933 – 1945     Third Reich – Germany – Berlin

Vassals or States under a high power…

804 – 1296    Saxony, Duchy – Germany – Duchy of Carolingian Empire & state of Holy Roman Empire
918 – 1482     Burgundy, Duchy – France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy – Dijon 
1198 – 1918     Bohemia, Kingdom – Czechia, Germany, Poland – Prague – Vassal of the Holy Roman Empire, Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire 
1224 – 1246     Empire of Thessalonica – Epirus, Thessaloniki – Thessaloniki – Vassal of the 2nd Bulgarian Empire
1395 – 1796     Milan, Duchy – Northern Italy – Milan – Vassal of the Holy Roman Empire

Europe’s history is lined with wars and conflicts recorded as far back as the dawn of Greece through to the current time today. The results of some of these wars has such an impact that Europe would not be what it is today. Such pivotal events actually affected the whole world and had they had different results, we may not even recognize the world as it is today.
Had the Spanish Armanda defeated the English, Spain would have ruled the high seas and most likely gained colonies in North America. Canada’s and the US official language could be Spanish and not English. What if Germany won the first World War and not the Allies. What European countries, like Poland and Czechia would not exist but, be a part of a Germany today. Outcomes of these conflicts can change the whole course of history more they we could possibly imagine.
You can go to the following pages ➾ Battlefields & Fortifications /  ➾ Cemeteries / ➾ War and Remembrance and find war related locations to visit while in Europe. Many museums across Europe may also have exhibits that address wars and the actions that have shaped Europe’s past history and future. 

Europe Conflict Timeline…
Pre 500 BCE

c. 1104–900 BCE Dorian invasion
c. 753–351 BCE Roman–Etruscan Wars
c. 753–494 BCE Roman–Sabine wars
743–724 BCE First Messenian War

710–650 BCE Lelantine War
circa 700–601 BCE Alban war with Rome
685–668 BCE Second Messenian War
669–668 BCE Sparta–Argos War

600–265 BCE Greek–Punic Wars
595–585 BCE First Sacred War
560 BCE Second Arcadian War
540 BCE Battle of Alalia
538–522 BCE Polycrates wars

500 – 200 BCE

509–396 BCE Early Italian campaigns
500–499 BCE Persian invasion of Naxos
492–490 BCE First Persian invasion of Greece 
482–479 BCE Second Persian invasion of Greece
480–307 BCE Sicilian Wars

460–445 BCE First Peloponnesian War
449–448 BCE Second Sacred War
440–439 BCE Samian War
431–404 BCE Second Peloponnesian War
395–387 BCE Corinthian War
390–387 BCE Celtic invasion of Italia
335 BCE Alexander’s Balkan campaign

323–322 BCE Lamian War
280–275 BCE Pyrrhic War
267–261 BCE Chremonidean War 
264–241 BCE First Punic War
229–228 BCE First Illyrian War
220–219 BCE Second Illyrian War 
218–201 BCE Second Punic War
214–205 BCE First Macedonian War

200 BCE onwards

200–197 BCE Second Macedonian War
191–189 BCE Aetolian War
171–168 BCE Third Macedonian War 
135–132 BCE First Servile War
113–101 BCE Cimbrian War 
113 BCE – CE 439 Germanic Wars 
104–100 BCE Second Servile War 
91–88 BCE Social War
88–87 BCE Sulla’s first civil war

85 BCE Colchis uprising against Pontus
83–72 BCE Sertorian War
82–81 BCE Sulla’s second civil war
78 BCE Marcus Aemilius Lepidus 
73–71 BCE Third Servile War 
73–63 BCE Roman Expansion in Syria & Judea
65–63 BCE Pompey’s campaign in Iberia and Albania

63–62 BCE Second Catilinarian conspiracy
55–54 BCE Caesar’s invasions of Britain
58–51 BCE Gallic Wars 
49–45 BCE Caesar’s Civil War
44–36 BCE Sicilian revolt 
43 BCE Battle of Mutina
43–42 BCE Liberators’ civil war
41–40 BCE Perusine War
32–30 BCE Final War of the Roman Republic


1st – 10th Century CE

35–41 Iberian-Parthian war 
49–96 Roman conquest of Britain
51 Armenian–Iberian war
69 Year of the Four Emperors
69–70 Revolt of the Batavi
193 Year of the Five Emperors 
208–210 Roman invasion of Caledoni
238 Year of the Six Emperors
271–278 Colchis–Roman War
284–285 Roman civil war
306–324 Civil wars of the Tetrarchy 
350–351 Roman civil war
360–361 Roman civil war 
367–368 Great Conspiracy
376–382 Gothic War 
387–388 Roman civil war 

394 Roman civil war of 394 AD
482–484 Iberian-Persian War
526–532 Iberian War 
535–554 Gothic War 
541–562 Lazic War
582–602 Maurice’s Balkan campaigns 
c. 600–793 Frisian–Frankish wars 
650–799 Arab–Khazar wars 
680–1355 Byzantine–Bulgarian wars 
711–718 Umayyad conquest of Hispania
715–718 Frankish Civil War (715–718)
722–1492 Reconquista
735–737 Georgian-Umayyad Caliphate War 
772–804 Saxon Wars 

c. 800/862–973 Hungarian invasions of Europe
830s Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus’
839–1330 Bulgarian–Serbian Wars
854–1000 Croatian–Bulgarian wars
860 Rus’–Byzantine War
865–878 Invasion of the Great Heathen Army
907 Rus’–Byzantine War
914 Arab-Georgian War
939 Battle of Andernach
941 Rus’–Byzantine War
955 Battle of Recknitz 
970–971 Sviatoslav’s invasion of Bulgaria
982 Battle of Stilo
983 Great Slav Rising


11th Century

1002–1018 German–Polish War 
1014–1208 Byzantine–Georgian wars 
1015–1016 Pisan–Genoese expeditions to Sardinia 
1015–1016 Cnut’s invasion of England 
1018 Battle of Vlaardingen
1024 Battle of Listven
1024 Rus’–Byzantine War  

1043 Rus’–Byzantine War 
1044 Battle of Ménfő 
1048–1064 Invasion of Denmark
1050–1185 Byzantine–Norman wars 
1057 Battle of Petroe 
1060 Battle of the Theben Pass 
1066 Norwegian invasion of England
1066–1088 Norman conquest of England
1067–1194 Norman invasion of Wales 

1067 Battle on the Nemiga River 
1068 Battle of the Alta River
1073–1075 Saxon Rebellion 
1077–1088 Great Saxon Revolt 
1078 Battle of Kalavrye
1088 Rebellion of 1088
1093 Battle of Schmilau
1093 Battle of the Stugna River
1097 Battle of Gvozd Mountain
1099–1204 Georgian–Seljuk wars


12th Century

1109 Battle of Głogów
1115 Battle of Welfesholz
1121 Battle of Didgori
1126 Battle of Chlumec 
1130–1240 Civil war era in Norway
1135–54 The Anarchy

1142–1445 Swedish–Novgorodian Wars 
1144–1162 Baussenque Wars 
1159–1345 Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines
1164 Battle of Verchen

1169–1175 Norman invasion of Ireland
1173–1174 Revolt of 1173–74
1185–1204 Uprising of Asen and Peter
1198 Battle of Gisors
1198–1290 Livonian Crusade


13th Century

1201 Battle of Stellau
1202 Siege of Zadar 
1202–1214 Anglo–French War
1205 Battle of Zawichost
1208–1227 Conquest of Estonia
1209–1229 Albigensian Crusade
1211 Welsh uprising of 1211
1215–1217 First Barons’ War 
1216–1222 War of Succession of Champagne
1220–1264 Age of the Sturlungs 
1223–1241 Mongol invasion of Europe 
1223–1480 Tatar raids in Russia

1224 Siege of La Rochelle 
1227 Battle of Bornhöved 
1231–1233 Friso-Drentic War
1234–1238 Georgian-Molgol War 
1239–1245 Teltow War 
1242 Saintonge War 
1256–1258 War of the Euboeote Succession
1256–1381 Venetian–Genoese Wars 
1256–1422 Friso-Hollandic Wars
1260 Battle of Kressenbrunn
1262–1266 Scottish–Norwegian War 
1264–1267 Second Barons’ War 
1265 Battle of Isaszeg 

1275–1276 The war against Valdemar Birgersson
1276–1278 6000-mark war
1276 War of Navarra
1277–1280 Uprising of Ivaylo
1278 Battle on the Marchfeld
1282–1302 War of the Sicilian Vespers
1283–1289 War of the Limburg Succession
1288–1295 War of the Outlaws
1296–1357 Wars of Scottish Independence
1297–1305 Franco-Flemish War
1298 Battle of Göllheim


14th Century

1302 Battle of the Golden Spurs
1304–1310 The Swedish brother’s feud 
1307 Battle of Lucka
1311–1312 Rebellion of mayor Albert 
1312 Battle of Rozgony 
1321–1322 Despenser War
1321–1328 Byzantine civil war of 1321–28 
1322 Battle of Bliska
 1323–1328 Peasant revolt in Flanders 
1324 War of Saint-Sardos 
1326–1332 Polish–Teutonic War 
1333–1338 Burke Civil War 
1337–1453 Hundred Years’ War
1340–1392 Galicia–Volhynia Wars 
1340–1396 Bulgarian–Ottoman wars 

1341–1347 Byzantine civil war of 1341–47
1342–1350 Zealot’s Rebellion 
1343–1345 St. George’s Night Uprising 
1347–1352 Neapolitan campaigns of Louis the Great 
1350–1498 Wars of the Vetkopers and Schieringers 
1350–1490 Hook and Cod wars 
1356–1358 Jacquerie
1356–1375 War of the Two Peters 
1362 Battle of Helsingborg 
1362–1457 War of the Bands 
1366–1369 Castilian Civil War
1366–1526 Ottoman–Hungarian Wars
1369–1370 First Fernandine War 
1371–1913 Serbian–Ottoman wars 

1371 Battle of Baesweiler
1371–1379 War of the Guelderian Succession 
1371–1381 War of Chioggia 
1372–1373 Second Fernandine War 
1373–1379 Byzantine civil war of 1373–79
1375 Gugler War 
1375–1378 War of the Eight Saints
1381 Peasants’ Revolt 
1381–1382 Third Fernandine War
1381–1384 Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84)
1382 Harelle and Maillotins Revolt 
1381–1404 Second Georgian–Mongol War
1389 Battle of Kosovo 
1389–1392 Lithuanian Civil War (1389–92) 
1395 Battle of Nicopolis


15th Century

1400–1415 Glyndŵr Rising
1401–1429 Appenzell Wars
1407–1468 Georgian-Turkoman War 
1409–1411 Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
1410–1435 War of Slesvig 
1414 Hunger War 
1419–1434 Hussite Wars 
1422 Gollub War 
1422 Battle of Arbedo
1425–1454 Wars in Lombardy 
1431–1435 Polish–Teutonic War 
1434–1436 Engelbrekt rebellion 
1437 Budai Nagy Antal revolt
1438–1556 Russo-Kazan Wars
1440–1446 Old Zürich War
1441 Battle of Samobor 
1443–1444 Long campaign 
1445 First Battle of Olmedo 
1447–1448 Albanian–Venetian War 
1449–1450 First Margrave War
1449 Battle of Castione
1449–1453 Revolt of Ghent
1450 Jack Cade’s Rebellion

1451–1455 Navarrese Civil War
1453–1454 Morea revolt
1454–1466 Thirteen Years’ War
1455–1485 Wars of the Roses
1462–1485 Rebellion of the Remences
1462–1472 Catalan Civil War
1463–1479 Ottoman–Venetian War
1465 Battle of Montlhéry
1465–1468 Wars of Liège
1466–1469 Irmandiño Wars
1467 Second Battle of Olmedo
1467–1479 War of the Priests
1468 Waldshut War
1468–1478 Bohemian War
1470–1471 Dano-Swedish War
1470–1474 Anglo-Hanseatic War
1475–1479 War of the Castilian Succession
1477–1488 Austrian–Hungarian War
1478 Carinthian Peasant Revolt
1478 Battle of Giornico
1479 Battle of Guinegate
1482–1484 War of Ferrara

1484 Battle of Lochmaben Fair
1485–1488 Mad War
1487 Battle of Crevola
1487 War of Rovereto
1488 Battle of Sauchieburn
1492–1583 Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
1493 Battle of Krbava Field
1493–1593 Hundred Years’ Croatian–Ottoman War
1494–1559 Italian Wars 
1494-1498 King Charles VII’s war
1499-1505 King Louis XII’s war
1508-1516 League of Cambrai war
1521-1526 4th Italian war
1526-1530 League of Cognac war 
1536-1538 6th Italian war
1542-1546 7th Italian war
1551-1559 8th Italian war
1495–1497 Russo-Swedish War
1497 Cornish Rebellion of 1497
1497 Battle of Rotebro
1499 Swabian War
1499–1504 Second Italian War


16th Century

1500–1854 Lekianoba
1502–1543 Guelders Wars
1503–1505 War of the Succession of Landshut
1508–1516 War of the League of Cambrai
1509–1510 Polish–Moldavian War
1514 Poor Conrad’s Rebellion
1514 Dózsa rebellion
1514–1517 Saxon feud
1515 Slovene Peasant Revolt
1515–1523 Frisian peasant rebellion
1519–1521 Polish–Teutonic War
1520–1521 Revolt of the Comuneros
1521–1523 Revolt of the Brotherhoods
1521–1523 Swedish War of Liberation
1521–1718 Ottoman–Habsburg wars
1522–1523 Knights’ Revolt
1522–1559 Habsburg-Valois Wars
1524–1525 German Peasants’ War
1526 Revolt of Espadán

1529 First War of Kappel
1531 Second War of Kappel
1534 Silken Thomas Rebellion
1534–1535 Münster Rebellion
1534–1536 Count’s Feud
1536–1537 Pilgrimage of Grace
1540 Salt War
1542–1543 Dacke War
1543–1550 Rough Wooing
1546–1547 Schmalkaldic War
1549 Kett’s Rebellion
1549 Prayer Book Rebellion
1550 Battle of Sauðafell
1552–1555 Second Margrave War
1554 Wyatt’s rebellion
1554–1557 Russo-Swedish War
1558–1583 Livonian War
1560 Siege of Leith
1562–1598 French Wars of Religion
1563–1570 Northern Seven Years’ War
1565 Great Siege of Malta
1566 Siege of Szigetvár

1568–1570 Morisco Revolt
1568–1648 Eighty Years’ War
1569–1570 Rising of the North
1569–1573 First Desmond Rebellion
1573 Croatian–Slovene Peasant Revolt
1578 Georgian-Ottoman War
1579–1583 Second Desmond Rebellion
1580–1583 War of the Portuguese Succession
1583–1588 Cologne War
1585–1604 Anglo-Spanish War
1588–1654 Dutch–Portuguese War
1587–1588 War of the Polish Succession
1590–1595 Russo-Swedish War
1593 Battle of Sisak
1593–1606 Long Turkish War
1593–1617 Moldavian Magnate Wars
1594–1603 Nine Years’ War (Ireland)
1595–1621 Moldavian Magnate Wars
1596–1597 Cudgel War
1598–1599 War against Sigismund


17th Century

600–1629 Polish–Swedish War
1602 Savoyard escalade of Geneva
1605–1618 Polish–Muscovite War
1606–1607 Bolotnikov Rebellion
1606–1608 Zebrzydowski Rebellion
1610–1617 Ingrian War
1611–1613 Kalmar War
1615–1618 Uskok War
1618–1648 Thirty Years’ War
1618–1639 Bündner Wirren
1620–1621 Polish–Ottoman War
1625 Zhmaylo Uprising
1627–1629 Anglo-French War
1628–1631 War of the Mantuan Succession
1630 Fedorovych Uprising
1632–1634 Smolensk War

1637 Pavlyuk Uprising
1638 Ostryanyn Uprising
1639–1653 Wars of the Three Kingdoms
1640–1668 Portuguese Restoration War
1648–1657 Khmelnytsky Uprising
1651 Kostka-Napierski Uprising
1651–1986 Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War
1652–1674 Anglo-Dutch Wars
1653 Swiss peasant war of 1653
1654 First Bremian War
1654–1667 Russo–Polish War
1655–1660 Second Northern War
1656 War of Villmergen
1663–1664 Austro-Turkish War

1666 Second Bremian War
1666–1671 Polish–Cossack–Tatar War
1667–1668 War of Devolution
1670–1671 Razin’s Rebellion
1672 First Kuruc Uprising
1672–1678 Franco-Dutch War
1672–1673 Second Genoese–Savoyard War
1675–1679 Scanian War
1676–1681 Russo-Turkish War
1679 Covenanter Rebellion
1683–1684 War of the Reunions
1683–1699 Great Turkish War
1685 Monmouth Rebellion
1688–1697 Nine Years’ War
1689–1692 First Jacobite Rising


18th Century

1700 Lithuanian Civil War
1700–1721 Great Northern War 
1701–1713 War of the Spanish Succession 
 1703–1711 Rákóczi’s War of Independence 
1707–1708 Bulavin Rebellion
1712 Toggenburg War
1714–1718 Ottoman-Venetian War
1715–1716 Jacobite rising of 1715 
1716–1718 Austro-Turkish War 
1718–1720 War of the Quadruple Alliance
1722–1723 Russo-Persian War
1727–1729 Anglo-Spanish War
1733–1738 War of the Polish Succession
1735–1739 Russo-Turkish War

1737–1739 Austro-Turkish War 
1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession 
1740–1763 Silesian Wars 
1741–1743 Russo-Swedish War
1745–1746 Jacobite rising of 1745 
1756–1763 Seven Years’ War
1757 Georgian-Ottoman Battle 
1763–1864 Russo-Circassian War 
1768–1772 War of the Bar Confederation
1768–1774 Russo–Turkish War
1770 Georgian–Ottoman Battle
1770 Orlov Revolt 
1774–1775 Pugachev’s Rebellion 
1775–1783 American Revolutionary War 

1778–1779 War of the Bavarian Succession
1784 Kettle War
1784–1785 Revolt of Horea, Cloșca and Crișan 
1785 Battle of the Sunja 
1787 Dutch Patriot Revolt 
1787–1792 Russo-Turkish War
1788–1791 Austro-Turkish War
1788–1790 Russo-Swedish War 
1790 Saxon Peasants’ Revolt 
1792 Polish–Russian War of 1792
1792–1802 French Revolutionary Wars 
1794 Kościuszko Uprising 
1795 Battle of Krtsanisi 
1798 Irish Rebellion of
1798 1798 Peasants’ War


19th Century

1803 Irish Rebellion of 1803
1803–1815 Napoleonic Wars
1803-1814 War between Britain and France
1805 War of the Third Coalition
1806–1807 War of the 1809 Fourth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
1812 The Invasion of Russia
1812–1814 War of the Sixth Coalition
1815 War of the Seventh Coalition
1803 Souliote War 
1804–1813 First Serbian Uprising 
1804–1813 Russo-Persian War 
1806–1812 Russo-Turkish War 
1808–1809 Finnish War
1809 Polish–Austrian War
1815–1817 Second Serbian Uprising
1817–1864 Russian conquest of the Caucasus
1821–1832 Greek War of Independence 
1821 Wallachian uprising 
1823 French invasion of Spain 
1826–1828 Russo-Persian War 

1827 War of the Malcontents 
1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War 
1828–1834 Liberal Wars 
1830 Ten Days’ Campaign (following the Belgian Revolution) 
1830–1831 November Uprising
1831 Canut revolts 
1831–1832 Bosnian Uprising
1831–1836 Tithe War 
1832 War in the Vendée and Chouannerie of 1832 
1832 June Rebellion 
1833–1839 First Carlist War
1833–1839 Albanian Revolts of 1833–39
1843–1844 Albanian Revolt of 1843–44
1846 Galician slaughter 
1846–1849 Second Carlist War
1847 Albanian Revolt of 1847 
1847 Sonderbund War 
1848–1849 Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence
1848–1851 First Schleswig War

1848–1849 First Italian War of Independence 
1853–1856 Crimean War 
1854 Epirus Revolt of 1854 
1858 Mahtra War 
1859 Second Italian War of Independence
1861–62 Montenegrin–Ottoman War
1863–1864 January Uprising
1864 Second Schleswig War 
1866 Austro-Prussian War
1866–1869 Cretan Revolt 
1866 Third Italian War of Independence 
1867 Fenian Rising 
1870–1871 Franco-Prussian War 
1872–1876 Third Carlist War 
1873–1874 Cantonal Revolution
1875–77 Herzegovina Uprising
1876–78 Serbian–Ottoman War
1876–78 Montenegrin–Ottoman War
1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War
1878 Epirus Revolt of 1878 
1885 Serbo-Bulgarian War 
1897 Greco-Turkish War


20th Century

1903 Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising 
1904–1908 Macedonian Struggle 
1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War 
1905 Łódź insurrection 
1905 Revolution of 1905
1906–1908 Theriso revolt 1907 
1907 Romanian Peasants’ Revolt 
1910 Albanian Revolt of 1910 
1910 5 October
1910 revolution
1910 Portuguese Monarchist Civil War 
1911 Albanian Revolt of 1911
1911–1912 Italo-Turkish War 
1912–1913 Balkan Wars
1912–1913 First Balkan War
1913 Second Balkan War 
1913 Tikveš Uprising 
1913 Ohrid–Debar Uprising 
1914 Peasant Revolt in Albania
1914–1918 World War I
1916 Easter Rising
1917 Russian Revolution
1917 February Revolution
1917 July Days 
1917 Polubotkivtsi uprising 
1917 Kornilov affair 
1917 October Revolution 
1917 Junker mutiny 
1917 Kerensky–Krasnov uprising 
1917–1921 Russian Civil War 
1917–1918 Soviet-Turkish War 
1917–1921 Ukrainian War of Independence
1917–1921 Ukrainian–Soviet War 
1918–1919 Polish–Ukrainian War 
1918–1924 Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks
1918 Left SR uprising 
1921 Kronstadt rebellion 
1918–1922 Heimosodat 
1918–1920 Estonian War of Independence 
1918 Viena expedition 
1918 Aunus expedition 
1918–1920 Petsamo expeditions 
1918–1920 National revolt of Ingrian Finns 
1921–1922 East Karelian Uprising 
1918–1925 Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War 
1918–1920 North Russia Intervention
1918–1922 Siberian Intervention 
1918 Georgian–Armenian War 
1918–1920 Georgian–Ossetian conflic
1918–1919 Georgian-Russian conflict over Sochi 
1918–1920 Armenian–Azerbaijani War 
1918–1920 Latvian War of Independence 
1918–1920 Lithuanian Wars of Independence 
1918–1919 Lithuanian–Soviet War 

1919 Lithuanian War of Independence (War against the Bermontians) 
1920 Polish–Lithuanian War1919–1921 Polish–Soviet War 
1921 Georgian–Russian War 
1924 Georgian Uprising against Soviet U
nion 
1919–1920 Revolutions and interventions in Hungary
1918–1919 Hungarian–Romanian War 
1919 Sejny Uprising
1919 Khotin Uprising 1918 Georgian–Turkish War
1918–1919 Austro-Slovene conflict in Carinthia 
1918–1958 Polish–Czechoslovak border conflicts
1919 Polish-Czech war for Teschen Silesia 
1918–1919 German Revolution
1918–1919 Greater Poland Uprising
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence
1919–1922 Greco-Turkish War
1918–1921 Franco-Turkish War
1920 Turkish–Armenian War 
1919–1923 Royalist and separatist revolts
1919 Christmas Uprising
1919–1920 Italo-Yugoslav War
1919–1920 Czechoslovakia–Hungary War
1919–1921 Silesian Uprisings
1919 First Silesian Uprising
1920 Second Silesian Uprising
1921 Third Silesian Uprising 
1919–1922 Irish War of Independence 
1920 Husino rebellion
1920 Vlora War 
1920 Kapp Putsch 
1920 Ruhr Uprising
1920 Slutsk Defence Action 
1920–1924 Biennio Rosso 
1921 Uprising in West Hungary 
1921 February Uprising 
1922–1923 Irish Civil War
1923 Corfu incident 
1923 September Uprising 
1923 Klaipėda Revolt 
1923 Leonardopoulos–Gargalidis coup d’état attempt 
1924 1924 Estonian coup d’état attempt
1924 August Uprising 
1925 Incident at Petrich 1932 Mäntsälä rebellion 
1933 Casas Viejas incident 
1933 Anarchist uprising in Spain (1933) 
1934 Asturian miners’ strike of 1934
1934 Austrian Civil War
1935 Greek coup d’état attempt 

1936–1939  Spanish Civil War 
1938 Greek coup d’état attempt
1939 Hungarian Invasion of the Carpatho-Ukraine
1939–1965 Spanish Maquis
1939–1945 World War II
1944–1956 Guerrilla war in the Baltic states 
1945–1949 Greek Civil War 
1947–1962 Romanian anti-communist resistance movement 1953 Uprising in East Germany 
1956 Uprising in Poznań
1956 Hungarian Revolution
1956–1962 Operation Harvest 
1958 Opération Corse
1958 First Cold War
1959–2011 Basque conflict 
1967 Greek coup d’état 
1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
1968–1998 The Troubles
1970–1984 Unrest in Italy 
1972 Bugojno group
1972–1973 Second Cod War 
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus
1974 Carnation Revolution 
1975–1976 Third Cod War 
1975 Portuguese coup d’état attempt 
1976–present Corsican Insurgency 
1981 Spanish coup d’état attempt 
1988–1994 Nagorno-Karabakh War 
1989 Romanian Revolution
1990–1991 Soviet attacks on Lithuanian border posts
1991 January Events 
1991 The Barricades 
1991 Ten-Day War (Slovenia)
1991–1992 Georgian war against Russo-Ossetian alliance
1991–1993 Georgian Civil War 
1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence 
1992 Transnistria War 
1992 East Prigorodny Conflict
1992–1993 First Georgian war against Russo-Abkhazian alliance
1992–1995 Bosnian War
1993 Cherbourg incident 
1993 Russian constitutional crisis 
1994–1996 First Chechen War 
1995–1996 Imia/Kardak military crisis 
1997–1998 Cyprus Missile Crisis
1997 Albanian civil war of 1997
1998–1999 Kosovo War
1998–present Dissident Irish Republican campaign
1998 Second Georgian war against Russian-Abkhazian alliance
1999 War of Dagestan
1999–2009 Second Chechen War
1999–2001 Insurgency in the Preševo Valley


21st Century

2001 Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia 
2002 Perejil Island crisis
2004–2013 Unrest in Kosovo
2008 unrest in Kosovo
2011–2013 North Kosovo crisis

2004 Georgia, Adjara crisis
2006 Georgia, Kodori crisis
2007–2015 Civil war in Ingushetia
2008 Russia–Georgia war 
2009–2017 Insurgency in the North Caucasus

2013–2014 Euromaidan and pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
2014 Crimean crisis
2014–present War in Donbass
2015 Kumanovo clashes
2022 Russia invades Ukraine

BCE

c. 8th century BC Homer – Greek Author
630 BC – 570 BC Sappho – Greek Poet
570 BC – 495 BC Pythagoras – Greek Mathematician
540 BC – 480 BC Leonidas I – King of Sparta
523 BC- 456 BC Aeschylus – Greek Tragedian Writer
497 BC – 406 BC Sophocles – Greek Tragedian Writer
495 BC – 429 BC- Pericles – Greek Statesman
484 BC – 425 BC Herodotus – Greek Historian
480 BC- 406 BC Euripides – Greek Tragedian Writer
469 BC – 399 BC Socrates – Greek Philosopher
460 BC – 370 BC Democritus – Greek Philosopher
460 BC – 370 BC Hippocrates – Greek Physician
423 BC – 348 BC Plato – Greek Philosopher
384 BC – 322 BC Aristotle – Greek Philosopher
382 BC – 336 BC Philip II – King of Macedon, father of Alexander
341 BC – 270 BC Epicurus – Greek Philosopher
356 BC – 323 BC Alexander the Great – King of Macedon
325 BC – 270 BC Euclid – Greek Mathematician
287 BC- 212 BC Archimedes – Greek Engineer, Mathematician, Astronomer
111 BC – 71 BC Spartacus –Thracian Gladiator
107 BC – 44 BC Cicero – Roman Statesman, Lawyer, Scholar, Philosopher
100 BC- 44 BC Julius Caesar – Roman Dictator
70 BC – 19 BC Virgil – Roman Poet
65 BC – 8 BC Horace – Roman Poet
64 BC – 12 BC Marcus Agrippa – Roman General & Statesman
63 BC – 14 AD Augustus Caesar – Roman Emperor
43 BC – 18 AD Ovid = Roman Poet
42 BC – 37 AD Tiberius – Roman Emperor

1st – 9th Centuries

9 – 79 Vespasian – Roman Emperor
53 – 117 Trajan – Roman Emperor
76 – 138 Hadrian – Roman Emperor
90 – 168 Ptolemy – Greco Egyptian Writer
121 – 180 Marcus Aurelius – Roman Emperor
129 – 200 Galen – Greek Physician
244 – 311 Diocletian – Roman Emperor
272 – 337 Constantine the Great – Roman Emperor
354 – 430 St. Augustine – Influential Christian Writer
390 – 461 St. Patrick – Bishop of Ireland
406 – 453 Attila the Hun – Hun Ruler
466 – 511 Clovis I – King of the Franks
480 – 543 St. Benedict of Nursia – Benedictine Order founder, Patron Saint of Europe  
482 – 565 Justinian I – Byzantine Emperor
747 – 814 Charlemagne – Holy Roman Emperor
848 – 899 Alfred the Great – King of the Anglo-Saxons

10th Century

907 – 935 Wenceslas I – Duke of Bohemia
912 – 973 Otto the Great – German Holy Roman Emperor
950 – 1003 Eric the Red – Norse Explorer
958 – 1015 Vladimir the Great –Grand Prince of Kiev
940 – 996 Hugh Capet – King of the Franks
970 – 1020 Lief Erikson – Norse Explorer
990 – 1035 Cnut the Great – King of Denmark

11 Century

1030 – 1079 Stanisław of Szczepanów – Polish Bishop
1079 – 1142 Peter Abelard – French medieval Philosopher & Theologian
1043 – 1099 Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) – Castilian Knight

12th Century

1118 – 1170 Thomas Becket – English Martyr
1122 – 1190 Frederick I “Barbarossa” – German Holy Roman Emperor
1122 – 1204 Eleanor of Aquitaine – Queen of France
1133- 1189 Henry II – English Plantagenet King
1128 – 1201 Absalon – Danish Bishop
1181 – 1226 Francis of Assisi – Italian Catholic Friar

13th Century

1221 – 1274 St. Bonaventure –  Italian Medieval Franciscan, Theologian and Philosopher
1225 – 1274 Tomas Aquinas – Italian Priest
1254 – 1324 Marco Polo – Venetian Merchant Traveller
1265 – 1326 Dante Alighieri – Italian Poet
1267 – 1337 Giotto di Bondone – Italian Early Renaissance Painter
1272 – 1305 William Wallace – Scottish Landowner
1274 – 1329 Robert the Bruce – King of Scots

14th Century

1310 – 1370 Casimir III the Great – King of Poland
1316 – 1378 Charles IV “Wenceslaus” –  Bohemian Holy Roman Emperor
1320 – 1384 John Wycliffe – English Philosopher
1340 – 1400 Geoffrey Chaucer – English Poet
1360 – 1415 Jan Hus – Czech Priest
1377 – 1446 Filippo Brunelleschi – Italian Architect
1378 – 1455 Lorenzo Ghiberti – Italian Early Renaissance Sculptor
1386 – 1466 Donato Bardi “Donatello” – Italian Early Renaissance Sculptor
1389 – 1464 Cosimo de Medici – Italian Banker
1390 – 1441 Jan van Eyck – Netherlandish Northern Renaissance Painter
1394 – 1460 Prince Henry the Navigator – Portuguese Politician
1398 – 1468 Johannes Gutenberg – German Printer

15th Century

1414 – 1431 Joan d’Arc – French Heroine
1430 – 1515 Giovanni Bellini – Italian High Renaissance Painter
1432 – 1482 Mehmed II “The Conqueror” – Ottoman Sultan
1445 – 1510 Sandro Botticelli – Italian Early Renaissance Painter
1450 – 1499 John Cabot – Italian Navigator for England
1450 – 1500 Bartolomeu Diaz – Portuguese Explorer
1451 – 1506 Christopher Columbus – Italian Explorer for Spain
1451 – 1504 Isabella I – Queen of Castile & Leon
1452 – 1516 Ferdinand II – King of Aragon
1452 – 1519 Leonardo Da Vinci – Italian High Renaissance Painter & Scientist
1443 – 1490 Matthias Corvinus – King of Hungary
1491 – 1547 Henry VIII – King of England
1454 – 1512 Amerigo Vespucci – Italian Explorer
1469 – 1492 Lorenzo de Medici – Italian Statesman & Magnate
1460 – 1520 Vasco de Gama – Portuguese Explorer
1469 – 1536 Erasmus – Dutch Philosopher & Christian Scholar
1469 – 1492 Lorenzo de Medici – Italian Statesman & Magnate
1471 – 1529 Albrecht Dürer – German Northern Renaissance Painter & Engraver
1473 – 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus – Polish Mathematician
1474 – 1521 Juan Ponce de Léon – Spanish Explorer
1475 – 1519 Vasco de Balboa – Spanish Explorer
1475 – 1564 Michelangelo Buonarroti – Italian High Renaissance Painter & Sculptor
1478 – 1535 Thomas More – English Philosopher
1478 – 1541 Francisco Pizarro – Spanish Conquistador
1480 – 1538 Albrecht Altdorfer – German Northern Renaissance Painter & Engraver
1480 – 1521 Ferdinand Magellan – Portuguese Explorer
1483 – 1520 Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino “Raphael” – Italian High Renaissance Painter
1483 – 1546 Martin Luther – German Priest & Reformer
1485 – 1547 Hrnán Cortés – Spanish Conquistador
1488 – 1576  Tiziano Vecellio “Titian” – Italian High Renaissance Painter
489 – 1588 Mimar Sinan – Ottoman Architect
1491 – 1551 Jacques Cartier – French Explorer
1494 – 1536 William Tyndale – English Protestant Reformer
1494 – 1566 Sulieman I ( The Magnificent) –  Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
1496 – 1542 Hernando de Soto – Spanish Conquistador

16th Century

1500 – 1571 Benvenuto Cellini – Italian Mannerist Sculptor & Goldsmith
1500 – 1558 Charles V – Holy Roman Emperor
1503 – 1566 Nostradamus – French Apothecal & Seer
1508 – 1580 Andrea Palladio – Venetian Architect
1509 – 1564 John Calvin – French Theologian
1510 – 1554 Francisco de Coronado – Spanish Conquistador
1527 – 1598 Philip II – King of Spain
1530 – 1584 Ivan the Terrible – Grand Prince of Moscow
1533 – 1603 Elizabeth I – Queen of England
1540 – 1597 Sir Francis Drake – English Privateer
1541 – 1614 El Greco – Greek born Spanish Mannerist Painter
1547 – 1616 Miguel de Cervantes – Spanish Novelist
1552 – 1618 Sir Walter Raleigh – English Writer & Explorer
1561 – 1626 Sir Francis Bacon – English Lord Chancellor
1564 – 1616 William Shakespeare – English Poet
1564 – 1642 Galileo Galilei – Italian Astronomer
1565 – 1611 Henry Hudson – English Explorer
1571 – 1610 Michelangelo Merisi “Caravaggio” – Italian Baroque Painter
1571 – 1630 Joannes Kepler – German Mathematician
1574 – 1635 Samuel de Champlain – French Navigator
1577 – 1640 Peter Paul Rubens – Flemish Baroque Painter
1578 – 1657 William Harvey –  English Physician
1588 – 1679 Thomas Hobbes – English Philosopher
1593 – 1656 Artemisia Gentileschi – Italian Baroque Painter
1594 – 1632 Gustav II Adolphus – King of Sweden 
1596 – 1650 Rene Descartes – French  Philosopher
1598 – 1642 Jean Nicolet – French Explorer
1598 – 1680 Gianlorenzo Bernini – Italian Baroque Painter & Sculptor
1599 – 1641 Antoon van Dyck – Flemish Baroque Painter 
1599 – 1658 Oliver Cromwell – English Parliamentarian & Military Leader
1599 – 1660 Diego Velázquez – Spanish Baroque Painter

17th Century

1606 – 1669 Rembrandt van Rijn – Dutch Baroque Painter & Engraver
1608 – 1674 John Milton – English Poet
1621 – 1695 Jean de La Fontaine – French Fabulist
1622 – 1673 Moliére – French Playwright
1623 – 1662 Blaise Pascal –  French Mathematician, Physicist, Inventor, Writer & Theologian
1629 – 1696 John III Sobieski –  King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania
1638 – 1715 Louis XIV “the Sun King” – King of France
1632 – 1675 Johannes Vermeer – Dutch Baroque Painter
1632 – 1677 Baruch Spinoza – Dutch Philosopher
1632 – 1704 John Locke – English Philosopher
1632 – 1723 Christopher Wren – English Architect
1632 – 1723 Antony van Leeunwenhoek – Dutch Chemist & Biologist
1637 – 1675 Jaqcues Marquette – French Explorer & Jesuit Missionary
1640 – 1705 Leopold I – Austrian Holy Roman Emperor 
1643 – 1727 Isaac Newton – English Physicist 
1672 – 1725 Peter the Great – Emperor of Russia
1660 – 1731 Daniel Defoe – English Writer & Trader
1667 – 1745 Jonathon Swift – Anglo-Irish Satirist & Essayist
1678 – 1741 Antonio Vivaldi – Italian Composer
1685 – 1750 J.S. Bach – German Composer
1685 – 1759 George Friderc Handel – German Composer
1689 – 1755 Baron de Montesquieu – French Lawyer& Philosopher
1694 – 1776 Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) – French Writer, Historian & Philosopher
1696 – 1770  Giovanni Tiepolo – Italian Rococo Painter

18th Century

1703 – 1791 John Wesley – English Theologian
1712 – 1786 Fredrick II the Great – King of Prussia
1712 – 1778 Jean Jaques Rousseau – Swiss Philosopher
1723 – 1790 Adam Smith – Scottish Social Philosopher
1724 – 1804 Immanuel Kant – German Philosopher
1725 – 1803 Arthur Guiness – Irish Brewer
1727 – 1788 Thomas Gainsborough – English Rococo / Romantic Painter
1728 – 1770 Pyotr Krenitsyn – Russian Explorer
1728 – 1779 James Cook – English Explorer
1729 – 1796 Catherine the Great – Emperor of Russia
1729 – 1797 Edmund Burke – Irish Statesman, economist & philosopher
1732 – 1809 Joseph Haydn – Austrian Composer
1736 – 1819 James Watt – Scottish Engineer, Inventor & Chemist
1741 – 1790 Joseph II Habsburg – Austrian Holy Roman Emperor
1743 – 1794 Antoine Laurent Lavoisier – French Chemist & Biologist
1743 – 1820 Joseph Banks – English Botanist
1745 – 1827 Alessandro Volta –  Italian Physicist
1746 – 1828 Francisco de Goya – Spanish Rococo / Romantic Painter & Printmaker
1749 – 1832 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – German Literary Author
1749 – 1823 Edward Jenner – English Physician
1756 – 1791 Wolfgang Mozart – Austrian Composer
1759 – 1805 Horatio Nelson – British Royal Navy Admiral
1759 – 1796 Robert Burns – Scottish Poet
1759 – 1833 William Wilberforce – British Anti-Salve Abolitionist
1759 – 1797 Mary Wollstonecraft – British Philosopher & Feminist
1760 – 1826 Thomas Clarkson – British Anti-Salve Abolitionist
1766 – 1844 John Dalton – English Chemist & Physicist
1770 – 1827 Ludwig van Beethoven – German Composer
1770 – 1850 William Wordsworth – English Poet
1771 – 1833 Richard Trevithick – British Mining Engineer
1769 – 1821 Napoleon Bonapart – French Military Leader & Emperor
1769 – 1852 Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington – Anglo-Irish Soldier
1770 – 1827 Ludwig van Beethoven – German Composer
1770 – 1850 William Wordsworth – English Poet
1775 – 1817 Jane Austen – English Author
1778 – 1863 Brothers Grimm – German Linguist Authors
1778 – 1829 Humphry Davy – Cornish Chemist
1781 – 1848 George Stephenson – English Civil Engineer
1787 – 1851 Louis Gaguerre – French Photographer
1788 – 1824 Lord Byron – English Poet
1790 – 1855 William Parry – English Explorer
1791 – 1867 Michael Faraday – English Electromagnetic & Electrochemistry Scientist
1791 – 1871 Charles Babbage – English Mathematician
1792 – 1822 Percy Shelley – English Poet
1792 – 1868 Gioacchino Rossini – Italian Composer
1795 – 1821 John Keats – English Poet
1797 – 1828 Franz Schubert – Austrian Composer
1799 – 1837 Alexander Pushkin – Russian Author
1799 – 1850 Honoré de Balzac – French Novelist and Playwright

19th Century

1802 – 1885 Victor Hugo – French Romantic Novelist, Poet & Dramatist
1802 – 1870 Alexander Dumas – French Romantic & Historical Fiction Writer
1803 – 1869 Hector Berlioz – French Composer
1804 – 1849 Johann Strauss –  Austrian Composer
1804 – 1881 Benjamin Disraeli – British Prime Minister to Queen Victoria
1805 – 1875 Hans Christian Andersen –  Danish Children’s & Travelogue Author
1806 – 1859  Isambard Kingdom Brunel – English Engineer
1806 – 1873 John Stuart Mill –  English Philosopher& Political Economist
1807 – 1882 Giuseppe Garibaldi – Italian Independence Leader
1809 – 1847 Felix Mendelssohn – German Composer
1809 – 1852 Louis Braille –  French Educator & Inventor
1809 – 1882 Charles Darwin – English Naturalist, Geologist & Biologist
1810 – 1849 Fryderyk Chopin – Polish Composer
1810 – 1856 Robert Schumann –  German Romantic Composer & Pianist
1811 – 1886 Franz Liszt – Hungarian Composer
1813 – 1873 David Livingstone – Scottish Physician & Missionary
1813 – 1883 Richard Wagner – German Composer
1813 – 1898 Henry Bessemer – English Inventor
1813 – 1901 Giuseppe Verdi – Italian Composer
1815 – 1894 Otto Von Bismarck – Prussian Statesman & 1st Chancellor of United a Germany
1816 – 1855 Charlotte Brontë – English Novelist & Poet
1818 – 1848 Emily Brontë – English Novelist & Poet
1818 – 1881 Alexander II – Emperor of Russia
1818 – 1883 Karl Marx – German Philosopher & Social Revolutionary
1819 – 1880 George Eliot – English Novelist, Poet & Journalist
1820 – 1910 Florence Nightingale – English Nurse & Social Reformer
1820 – 1878 Victor Emmanuel II – 1st King of a united Italy
1820 – 1895 Friedrich Engles – German Philosopher & Political Scientist
1821 – 1881 Fyodor Dostoyevsky – Russian Novelist
1821 – 1892 Louis Vuitton – French Designer & Businessman
1822 – 1895 Louis Pasteur – French Biologist & Chemist
1827 – 1912 Joseph Lister –  English Surgeon
1828 – 1910 Leo Tolstoy – Russian Realism Writer
1828 – 1905 Jules Verne – French Novelist
1831 – 1879 James Clerk Maxwell – Scottish Electromagnetism Physicist
1832 – 1883 Édouard Manet – French Realist / Impressionist Painter
1832 – 1898 Lewis Carroll –  English Mathematician & Author
1832 – 1923 Gustave Eiffel – French Engineer
1833 – 1896 Alfred Nobel – Swedish Chemist
1833 – 1897 Johannes Brahms – German Composer
1834 – 1900  Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler – German Industrial Engineer
1834 – 1917 Edgar Degas – French Realist / Impressionist Painter & Sculptor
1835 – 1919 Andrew Carnegie – Scottish Business Magnate & Industrialist
1835 – 1926 Thomas Burberry – English Designer
1838 – 1875 Georges Bizet – French Composer
1839 – 1881 Modest Mussorgsky – Russian Composer
1839 – 1906 Paul Cézanne – French Post-Impressionist Painter
1840 – 1893 Pyotr Tchaikovsky – Russian Composer
1840 – 1917 Auguste Rodin – French Sculptor
1840 – 1902 Émile Zola – French Novelist, Journalist, Playwright
1840 – 1926 Claude Monet – French Impressionist Painter
1840 – 1928 Thomas Hardy – English Novelist
1841 – 1904 Antonín Dvořák – Czech Composer
1841 – 1919 Pierre-Auguste Renior – French Impressionist Painter
1843 – 1907 Edvard Grieg – Norwegian Composer
1844 – 1900 Friedrich Nietzsche – German Philosopher
1844 – 1903 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov – Russian Composer
1844 – 1923 Sara Bernhardt – French Actor
1844 – 1929 Karl Benz – German Engineer
1847 – 1922 Alexander Graham Bell – Scottish Scientist
1847 – 1934 Paul von Hindenburg – German General & Chancellor
1848 – 1903 Paul Gauguin – French Post-Impressionist Painter
1850 – 1894 Robert Louis Stevenson – Scottish Novelist
1851 – 1929 Ferdinand Foch – French WWI Supreme Commander
1852 – 1926 Antonio Gaudi – Spanish Catalan Architect
1853 – 1890 Vincent van Gogh – Dutch Post-Impressionist Painter
1854 – 1900 Oscar Wilde – Irish Author
1856 – 1939 Sigmund Freud – Austrian Neurologist
1858 – 1913 Rudolf Diesel – German Engineer
1858 – 1924 Giacomo Puccini – Italian Opera Composer
1856 – 1943 Nikola Tesla – Serbian Inventor, Electrical & Mechanical Engineer
1856 – 1950 George Bernard Shaw – Irish English Playwright
1857 – 1924 Joseph Conrad – Polish-English Novelists
1858 – 1928 Emmeline Pankhurst – English Suffragette
1858 – 1947 Max Planck – German Quantum Physicist
1859 – 1891 Georges Seurat – French Pointillist Painter
1859 – 1930 Arthur Conan Doyle – English Writer
1859 – 1940  Édouard Michelin – French Tire Industrialist
1859 – 1941 Wilhelm II –  German Emperor of Prussia 
1860 – 1904 Anton Chekhov – Russian Physician/Writer
1860 – 1911 Gustav Mahler –  Austro-Bohemian Composer
1860 – 1926 Willem Einthoven – Dutch Physician
1861 – 1918 Gustav Klimt – Austrian Art Nouveau Painter
1862 – 1918 Claude Debussy – French Impressionist Composer
1863 – 1944 Edvard Munch – Norwegian Symbolist / Expressionist Painter
1864 – 1901 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – French Post-Impressionist Painter & Printmaker
1864 – 1909 Fernand Renault – French Automotive Industrialist
1865 – 1915 Edith Cavell – English Nurse
1865 – 1936 Rudyard Kipling – English Writer
1865 – 1939 W. B. Yeats –  Irish Poet and Dramatist 
1866 – 1944 Wassily Kandinsky – Russian born French Expressionist Painter
1866 – 1946 H.G.Wells – English Writer
1867 – 1934 Marie Currie – Polish French Physicist
1867 – 1946 Jeanne Lanvin – French Fashion Designer
1869 – 1954 Henri Matisse – French Fauvist Painter & Sculptor
1870 – 1924 Vladimir Lenin – Russian Revolutionary
1871 – 1922 Marcel Proust – French novelist, critic and essayist
1872 – 1903 Marcel Renault – French Automotive Industrialist
1872 – 1928 Roald Amundsen –  Norwegian Explorer
1872 – 1944 Piet Mondrian – Dutch Neo-Plasticist Painter 
1873 – 1897 St. Therese de Lisieux – French Nun & Spiritual Writer
1873 – 1921 Enrico Caruso – Italian Tenor
1873 – 1943 Sergei Rachmaninoff – Russian Composer
1874 – 1937 Guglielmo Marconi – Italian Inventor
1874 – 1965 Winston Churchill – British Prime Minister
1875 – 1937 Maurice Ravel – French Composer
1875 – 1951 Ferdinand Porsche – Austrian/German Automotive Engineer
1875 – 1965 Albert Schweitzer – German Theologian, Musician, Philosopher, & Physician
1876 – 1957 Constantin Brâncuși – Romanian Dada Sculptor
1876 – 1967 Konrad Adenauer – German Chancellor after WW II 
1876 – 1973 Pablo Casals – Spanish Catalan Cellist
1877- 1944  Louis Renault – French Automotive Industrialist
1878 – 1953 Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union Premier
1879 – 1955 Albert Einstein – German Physicist
1879 – 1970 E.M. Forster –  English fiction Writer, Essayist and Librettist
1881 – 1922 Marcel Proust – French Novelists & Essayist
1881 – 1938 Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk” – Founder of modern day Turkey
1881 – 1945 Béla Bartók – Hungarian Composer
1881 – 1953 Guccio Gucci – Italian Business Fashion Retailer
1881 – 1955 Alexander Fleming – Scottish Physician & Microbiologist
1881 – 1973 Pablo Picasso – Cubist Spanish Painter & Sculptor
1882 – 1941 Virginia Woolf – English Modernist Writer
1882 – 1941 James Joyce – Irish Novelist
1882 – 1971 Igor Stravinsky – Russian Composer, Pianist & Conductor
1883 – 1924 Franz Kafka – Czech German Writer
1883 – 1945 Benito Mussolini “Il Duce” – Italian Politian
1883 – 1969 Walter Gropius – German Architect
1883 – 1971 Coco Channel – French Designer
1885 – 1930 D.H. Lawrence – English Writer & Poet
1886 – 1969  Ludwig Mies van der Rohe – German Architect
1887 – 1965  Le Corbusier – Swiss French Architect, Urban Planner
1887 – 1989 Marc Chagall – Russian born French Painter & Stained Glass Artist
1888 – 1935 (T.E.) Lawrence of Arabia – English Archaeologist & Military Leader
1888 – 1954 Heinz Guderian – German General , pioneered the Blitzkrieg
1888 – 1965 T. S. Eliot –  British Essayist
1889 – 1945 Adolf Hitler – Austrian born German Nazi Leader
1889 – 1977 Charlie Chaplin – English Comic Actor
1890 – 1922 Michael Collins – Irish Revolutionary
1890 – 1970 Charles de Gaulle – President of France
1890 – 1973 Elsa Schiaparelli – Italian Fashion Designer
1890 – 1976 Agatha Christie –  English Writer
1891 – 1944 Erwin Rommel “The Desert Fox” – German General & Military Theorist
1891 – 1953 Sergei Prokofiev – Russian Composer
1892 – 1973 J.R.R.Tolkien – English Writer
1892 – 1976 John Paul Getty – British Petrol Industrialist
1892 – 1984 Martin Niemöller – German Anti-Nazi Lutheran Pastor
1893 – 1983 Joan Miró – Spanish Surrealist Painter & Sculptor
1894 – 1941 Maximilian Kolbe – Polish Priest & Refugee Rescuer
1898 – 1960 Salvatore Ferragamo – Italian Shoe Designer
1898 – 1963 C. S. Lewis – Irish Author
1898 – 1976 Alvar Aalto – Finnish Architect
1898 – 1988 Enzo Ferrari – Italian Motor Racer & Automotive Industrialist
1899 – 1980 Alfred Hitchcock – English Film Director & Producer

20th Century

1901 – 1948 Witold Pilecki – Polish Resistance Fighter in WWII
1901 – 1954 Enrico Fermi – Italian Physicist
1901 – 1992 Marlene Dietrich – German Actor & Entertainer
1903 – 1989 Valdimir Horowitz – Russian Pianist
1903 – 1950 George Orwell – English Novelist
1904 – 1989 Salvador Dali – Spanish Surrealist Painter
1905 – 1957 Christian Dior – French Fashion Designer
1905 – 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld – Swedish Secretary-General of the United Nations
1905 – 1980 Jean-Paul Sarte –  French Philosopher
1906 – 1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer – German Anti-Nazi Lutheran Pastor
1906 – 1975 Aristotle Socrates Onassis – Greek Shipping Magnate
1907 – 1989 Lawrence Olivier – English Actor & Director
1908 – 1974 Oskar Schindler –  German Industrialist & Refugee Rescuer
1908 – 2005 Simon Wiesenthal – Jewish Austrian Holocaust Survivor
1909 – 1992 Francis Bacon – Irish born British Expressionist Painter
1910 – 1961  Eero Saarinen – Finnish Architect & Industrial Designer
1910 – 1975 Dimitri Shostakovich – Russian Composer
1910 – 1997 Jacques Cousteau – French Explorer & Conservationist 
1910 – 1997 Mother Teresa – Albanian Missionary
1912 – 1947 Raoul Wallenberg –  Swedish Architect
1913 – 1992 Willy Brandt – German Chancellor
1913 – 2002 Per Anger – Swedish Diplomat
1914 – 1953 Dylan Thomas – Welsh Poet
1914 – 2000 Alec Guinness – English Actor
1914 – 2000 Heddy Lamarr – Austrian Actor & Inventor 
1915 – 1963 Édith Piaf – French Singer
1918 – 2008  Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Russian Novelist
1918 – 2008 Jørn Oberg Utzon – Danish Architect
1920 – 1993 Federico Fellini  – Italian Film Director & Writer
1920 – 2005 John Paul II – Polish Pope
1922 – xxxx  Pierre Cardin – Italian Fashion Designer
1921 – 2003 Gianni Agnelli – Italian Automotive Industrialist
1923 – 1977 Maria Callas – Greek Soprano Opera Singer
1923 – 2007  Marcel Marceau – French Actor & Mime Artists
1925 – 1980 Peter Sellers – British Actor & Comedian
1926 – 2000 Feodor Ingvar Kamprad – Swedish Business Magnate
1926 – xxxx Elizabeth II – Queen of the United Kingdom & Commonwealths
1927 – 2018 Hubert de Givenchy – French Fashion Designer
1928 – 1954 Alan Turing – English Mathematician & Theoretical Computer Scientist
1929 – 1945 Anne Frank – German Jewish Diarist
1931 – xxxx Mikhail Gorbachev – Leader & Reformer of the Soviet Union 
1933 – 2019 Karl Lagerfeld – German Designer, Photographer
1934 – xxxx Giorgio Armani – Italian Fashion Designer
1936 – 2008 Yves Saint Laurent – French Fashion Designer
1940 – 1980 John Lennon – British Musician / Composer
1942 – 2018 Stephan Hawking – English Physicist & Cosmologist
1942 – xxxx Paul McCartney – English Song Composer
1943 – xxxx Betty Williams – Northern Irish Peace Activist
1943 – xxxx Lech Walesa – Polish Solidarity Movement Leader
1947 – xxxx Salman Rushdie –  British-Indian Novelist and Essayist
1949 – xxxx Miuccia Prada – Italian Designer
1955 – xxxx Tim Berners-Lee –  English Computer Scientist

After the fall of the Roman Empire many areas of Europe were no longer subjugated to Roman rule. This vacuum was filled by those who sought the power and dominance to control the local areas throughout the continent. Those who were successful created their kingdoms form which to rule. Once an individual achieved power it was passed on to their direct descendants.

Over several centuries this creates a lust for more power and kingdoms would conquered other kingdoms creating some empires and family dynasties that would rule for centuries. For some during the age of exploration, that dominance and control would spread over the indigenous peoples of every continent. European nations and ethnic groups would clash with each other throughout the centuries to come. This all creates a fascinating and very complex history if not in some instances a troubling one. 

Today twelve monarchies still survive in European countries but, with limited powers. Andorra, Belgium, Denmark, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden & the United Kingdom are all constitutional governments except for the Vatican City State. While the Pope is elected he rules with absolute power. 

🇬🇧 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Monarchs of England & Great Britain…

House of Wessex
886 – 899       Alfred the Great     (847-899)     Son of Æthelwulf of Wessex
899 – 924       Edward the Elder     (874-924)     Son of Alfred
924 – 939       Æthelstan     (894-939)     Son of Edward the Elder
939 – 946       Edmund I     (921-946)    Son of Edward the Elder 
946 – 955       Eadred     (923-955)     Son of Edward the Elder
955 – 959       Eadwig     (940-959)     Son of Edmund I
959 – 975       Edgar the Peaceful     (943-975)     Son of Edmund I
975 – 978       Edward the Martyr     (962-978)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful
978 – 1013     Ætherlred the Unready     (966-1016)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful
House of Denmark
1013 – 1014     Sweyn     (960-1014)     Right of Conquest
House of Wessex (restored 1st time)
1014 – 1016     Ætherlred the Unready     (966-1016)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful
1016 – 1016     Edmund Ironside     (990-1016)     Son of Ætherlred
House of Denmark (restored)
1016 – 1035     Canute the Great     (990-1035)     Son of Sweyn
1035 – 1040     Harold Harefoot     (1016-1040)     Son of Canute
1040 – 1042     Harthacnut     (1018-1042)     Son of Canute
House of Wessex (restored 2nd time)
1042 – 1066     Edward the Confessor     (1003-1066)     Son of Ætherlred
House of Godwinson
1066 – 1066     Harold Godwinson     (1022-1066)     named heir by Edward the Confessor. Elected by the Witenagemot
House of Normandy
1066 – 1087     William I the Conqueror     (1028-1087)     Right of Conquest
1087 – 1100     William II Rufus    (1056-1100)     Son of William I 
1100 – 1135     Henry I Beauclerc     (1068-1135)   Son of William I 
House of Blois
1135 – 1154     Stephen of Blois    (1092-1154)     Grandson of William I 
House of Anjou
1154 – 1189     Henry II Curtmantle     (1133-1189)     Grandson of Henry I     
1189 – 1199     Richard I the Lionhearted     (1157-1199)     Son of Henry II
1199 – 1216     John      (1166-1216)     Son of Henry II
House of Plantagenet
1216 – 1272     Henry III of Winchester     (1207-1272)     Son of John
1272 – 1307     Edward I Longshanks     (1239-1307)     Son of Henry III
1307 – 1327     Edward II of Caernarfon     (1284-1327)     Son of Edward II 
1327 – 1377     Edward III     (1312-1377)     Son of Edward II 
1377 – 1399     Richard II     (1367-1400)     Grandson of Edward III 
House of Lancaster
1399 – 1413     Henry IV of Bolingbroke     (1367-1413)     Grandson of Edward III 
1413 – 1422     Henry V     (1386-1422)     Son of Henry IV
1422 – 1461     Henry VI     (1421-1417)     Son of Henry V 
House of York
1461 – 1470     Edward IV     (1442-1483)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III 
House of Lancaster (restored)
1470 – 1471     Henry VI (2nd reign)    (1421-1471)     Son of Henry V
House of York (restored)
1471 – 1483     Edward IV     (1442-1483)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III 
1483 – 1483     Edward V     (1470-1483)     Son of Edward IV
1483 – 1485     Richard III     (1452-1485)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III
House of Tudor
1485 – 1509     Henry VII     (1457-1509)     Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III
1509 – 1547     Henry VIII     (1491-1553)     Son of Henry VII
1547 – 1553     Edward VI     (1537-1553)     Son of Henry VIII
1553 – 1553     Lady Jane Grey     (1537-1554)     Great-granddaughter of Henry VII
1553 – 1558     Mary I Bloody Mary     (1516-1558)     Daughter of Henry VIII
1554 – 1558     Philip     (1527-1598)     Husband of Mary I   
1558 – 1603     Elizabeth I     (1533-1603)     Daughter of Henry VIII
House of Stuart
1603 – 1625     James I     (1566-1625)     Great-great-grandson of Henry VII
1625 – 1649     Charles I     (1600-1649)     Son of James I
Interregnum
1653 – 1658     Oliver Cromwell     (1599-1658)     Assumed power after Coup d’etat of 1653 
1658 – 1659     Richard Cromwell     (1626-1712)
House of Stuart (restored)
1660 – 1685     Charles II     (1630-1685)     Son of Charles I
1685 – 1688     James II     (1633-1701)     Son of Charles I
1689 – 1694     Mary II     (1662-1694)     Daughter of James II 
1689 – 1702     William III of Orange     (1650-1702)     Grandson of Charles I
1702 – 1714     Anne     (1665-1714)     Daughter of James II
House of Hanover
1714 – 1727     George I     (1660-1727)     Great-grandson of James I
1727 – 1760     George II     (1683-1760)     Son of George I
1760 – 1820     George III     (1738-1820)     Grandson of George II
1820 – 1830     George IV     (1762-1830)     Son of George III
1830 – 1837     William IV     (1765-1837)     Son of George III
1837 – 1901     Victoria     (1819-1901)     Grandaughter of George III
House of Saxe-Coburg / Windsor
1901 – 1910     Edward VII      (1841-1910)     Son of Queen Victoria  
1910 – 1936     George V     (1865-1936)     Son of Edward VII
1936 – 1936     Edward VIII     (1894-1972)     Son of George V
1936 – 1952     George VI     (1895-1952)     Son of George V
1952 – xxxx     Elizabeth II     (1926-xxxx)     Daughter of George VI

🇫🇷 Monarchs of France…

Mérovingien Dynasty
509 – 511       Clovis I     (466-511)     Son of Childeric I
Carolingian Dynasty
741 – 768         Pepin III the Short     (714-768)     Coup d’état against Merovingians
768 – 814         Charles I the Great – Charlemagne     (-814)
814 – 840         Louis I the Debonair of Aquitaine
840 – 877         Charles II le Chauve     (823-877)     Son of Louis I
877 – 879         Louis II the Stammerer     (846-879)     Son of Charles II
879 – 882         Louis III     (863-882)     Son of Louis II
882 – 884         Carolman II     (866-884)     Son of Louis II
885 – 888         Charles III the Fat     (839-888)     Grandson of Louis I
888 – 890         Odo of Paris     (857-898)     3rd Cousin of Louis II
898 – 928         Charles III the Simple Son of Louis II
922 – 923         Robert I     (866-923)     Robertian Dynasty      3rd Cousin of Louis II
923 – 936         Rudolph     (890-936)     Bosonid Dynasty     Son in-law of Robert I
Kingdom of France
936 – 954         Louis IV     (920-954)     Son of Charles III
954 – 966         Lothaire     (941-986)     Son of Louis IV
966 – 987         Louis V     (866-887)     Son of Lothaire
House of Capet
987 – 996         Hugh Capet
996 – 1031       Robert II the Pious
1031 – 1060     Henry I
1060 – 1108     Philip I the Armorous
1108 – 1137     Louis VI the Fat
1137 – 1180     Louis VII the Young
1180 – 1223     Philip II Augustus
1223 – 1226     Louis VIII the Lion
1226 – 1270     Louis IX the Saint
1270 – 1285     Philip III the Bold
1285 – 1314     Philip IV the Fair
1314 – 1316     Louis X the Quarreller
1316 – 1316     John I Posthumous
1316 – 1322     Philip V the Tall
1322 – 1328     Charles IV the Fair  
House of Valois
1328 – 1350     Philip VI the Fortunate     (1293-1350)     Grandson of Philip III
1350 – 1364     John II the Good
1364 – 1380     Charles V the Wise
1380 – 1422     Charles VI the Beloved
1422 – 1461     Charles VII the Victorious     (1403-1461)
1461 – 1483     Louis XI the Prudent
1483 – 1498     Charles VIII the Affable
1498 – 1515     Louis XII Father of the People
1515 – 1547     Francis I the Restorer of Letters
1547 – 1559     Henry II
1559 – 1560     Francis II
1560 – 1574     Charles IX
1574 – 1589     Henry III
House of Bourbon
1589 – 1610     Henry IV Green Gallant     (1553-1610)     10th generation of Louis IX
1610 – 1643     Louis XIII the Just     (1601-1643)     Son of Henry IV
1643 – 1715     Louis XIV the Sun King     (1638-1715)     Son of Louis XIII
1715 – 1774     Louis VX the Beloved     (1710-1774)     Greta Grandson of Louis XIV
1774 – 1792     Louis XVI     (1754-1792)     Grandson of Louis VX   
House of Bonaparte – 1st Empire
1804 – 1814     Napoleon I     (1769-1821)     Assumed power after 1st French Republic
Capetian Dynasty
1814 – 1815     Louis XVIII the Desired     (1755-1824)     Grandson of Louis XV
House of Bonaparte – 1st Empire
1815 – 1815     Napoleon I     (1769-1821)     Regained power for 100 Days  
House of Bourbon
1815 – 1824     Louis XVIII the Desired     (1755-1824)     Grandson of Louis XV
1824 – 1830     Charles X     (1757-1836)     Grandson of Louis XV
House of Orleans
1830 – 1870     Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King     (1773-1850)     6th generation of Louis XIII
House of Bonaparte – 2nd Empire
1852 – 1870     Napoleon III     (1808-1873)     Nephew of Napoleon I 

🇩🇪 Monarchs of Germany & Prussia…

Carolingians
843 – 876 Louis the German
876 – 880 Carloman
876 – 882 Louis the Younger
876 – 887 Charles the Fat
887 – 899 Arnulf of Carinthia
900 – 911 Louis the Child
Conradine dynasty
911 – 918 Conrad I
Ottonian Dynasty
919 – 936 Henry I the Fowler
919 – 921 Arnulf the Bad
Holy Roman Empire
962 – 973     Otto I the Great   
973 – 983 Otto II the Red
983 – 1002 Otto III
1002 – 1024 Henry II
Salian dynasty
1024 – 1039 Conrad II
1046 – 1056 Henry III
1084 – 1105 Henry IV
1077 – 1080 Rudolph of Rheinfelden
1081 – 1088 Herman of Salm
1087 – 1101 Konrad
1111 – 1125 Henry V
Supplinburger dynasty
1125 – 1137 Lothair III
Hohenstaufen & Welf
1138 – 1152 Conrad III
1152 – 1190 Frederick I Barbarossa
1191 – 1197 Henry VI
1197 – 1197 Frederick II
1198 – 1208 Philip of Swabia
1209 – 1215 Otto IV
1220 – 1250 Frederick II
1220 – 1235 Henry (King only)
1237 – 1254 Conrad IV
Interregnum
Changing Dynasties
1273 – 1291 Rudolf 1 – Habsburg
1292 – 1298 Adold of Nassau
1298 – 1308 Aober 1 – Habsburg
1308 – 1313 Henry VII – Luxembourg
1314 – 1347 Louis IV – Wittelsbach
1314 – 1330 Frederick the Fair – Habsburg
1346 – 1378 Charles IV – Luxembourg
1349 – 1349 Günther von Schwarzburg
1376 – 1400 Wenceslaus – Luxembourg
1400 – 1410 Rupert of the Palatinate – Wittelsbach
1410 – 1437 Sigismund – Luxembourg
1410 – 1411 Jobst of Moravia – Luxembourg
Habsburg
1438 – 1439 Albert II
1440 – 1493 Frederick III
1486 – 1519 Maximillian I
1519 – 1556 Charles V
1556 – 1564 Ferdinand I
1564 – 1576 Maximillian II
1576 – 1612 Rudolf II
1612 – 1619 Matthias
1619 – 1637 Ferdinand II
1637 – 1657 Ferdinand III
1653 – 1654 Ferdinand IV
1658 – 1705 Leopold I
1705 – 1711 Joseph I
1711 – 1740 Charles VI
1742 – 1745 Charles VII
1745 – 1780 Maria Theresa
1745 – 1765 Francis I
1765 – 1790 Joseph II
1790 – 1792 Leopold II
1792 – 1806 Francis II
Confederation of the Rhine 1806 -1813
1806 – 1813 Naploeon I
German Confederation
1525 – 1568 Albert
1568 – 1618 Albert Frederick
1618 – 1619 John Sigismund
1619 – 1640 George William
1640 – 1688 Frederick William the Great Elector
1688 – 1701 Frederick I
Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918)…
1701 – 1713 Frederick I
1713 – 1740 Frederick William I
1740 – 1786 Frederick II the Great
1786 – 1797 Frederick William II
1797 – 1840 Frederick William III
1840 – 1861 Frederick William IV
1861 – 1888 William I
1888 – 1888 Frederick III
1888 – 1918 William II

🇳🇱 Monarchs of the Netherlands…

House of Orange-Nassau
Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)
Principality of the Netherlands (1813–1815)
Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–present)
1980 – 2013 Beatrix (1938-xxxx)
2013 – xxxx William-Alexander (1967-xxxx)

🇵🇱 Monarchs of Poland…

Piast Dynasty
9th Century Piast
965 – 991 Meiszko I
992 – 1025 Bolesław I
1025 – 1037 Mieszko II
1038 – 1058 Casim ir I
1058 – 1079 Bolesław II
1079 – 1102 Władysław Herman
1102 – 1138 Bolesław III
1138 – 1146 Władysław II
1146 – 1177 Bolesław IV
1173 – 1177 Mieszko III
1177 – 1194 Casimir II
1194 – 1202 Mieszko the Elder
1202 – 1227 Lesyek the White
1228 – 1231 Władysław III
1231 – 1238 Henry I of Silesia
1238 – 1241 Henry II of Silesia
1241 – 1243 Konrad I Mazowiecki
1243 – 1279 Bolesław V
1279 – 1288 Leszek the Black
1288 – 1290 Henry IV of Silesia
1290 – 1300 Przemysl I
1300 – 1306 Vaclav II
1306 – 1333 Władysław 1
1333 – 1370 Casimir III the Great
Angevin Dynasty
1370 – 1382 Louis of Anjou King of Hungary
1384 – 1386 Jadwiga of Anjou
Jagiellonian Dynasty
1386 – 1434 Władysław Jagiełło
1434 – 1444 Władysław III of Varna
1444 – 1492 Kazimierz IV
1492 – 1501 Jan Olbracht
1501 – 1506 Alexander
1506 – 1548 Sigismund I
1548 – 1572 Sigismund II
Elected Kings of Rzeczpospolita
1573 – 1574 Henrz de Valois of France
1576 – 1586 Stefan Bathorz
1587 – 1632 Sigismund III
1632 – 1648 Władysław IV
1648 – 1668 Jan Kazimierz
1669 – 1673 Michał Korybut Wisinowiecki
1674 – 1696 Jan III Sobieski
1697 – 1704 Augustus II
1704 – 1710 Stanisław Leszczyński
1710 – 1763 Augustus II
1764 – 1795 Stanisławż August Poniatowski

🇵🇹 Monarchs of Portugal…

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)
House of Aviz (1385–1580)
House of Habsburg (1581–1640)
House of Braganza (1640–1910)
1908 – 1910 Manuel II (1889-1932)

🇷🇺 Monarchs of Russia…

Kievan Rus
Rurikid Dynasty
862 – 879     Rurik
880 – 880     Oleg
912 – 945     Igor
945 – 969    Olga, St.
969 – 980     Sviatoslav
980 – 1015     Vladimir, St.
1019 – 1054     Yarolslav the Wise
1113 – 1125     Vladimir Monomakh
1157 – 1174     Andrei Bogoliubskii
1178 – 1202     Igor of Sever
1240 – 1263     Alexander Nevskii
1235 – 1265     Daniel Romanowicz
Muscovy
Grand Dukes of Moscow
1305 – 1340     Ivan I Kalita
1350 – 1389     Dmitri Donskoi
1389 – 1425     Vassili I
1425 – 1462     Vassily II
Tsars of Moscow and all of Russia (from 1473)
1462 – 1505    Ivan III the Great 
1505 – 1533     Vasili III
1533 – 1584     Ivan IV the Terrible
1584 – 1598     Feodor I
1598 – 1605     Boris Godunov
1606 – 1605     Feodor II
1605 – 1606     Dmitri I
1606 – 1610     Vasili Shuiski
1608 – 1610     Dmitri II
Romanov Dynasty
1613 – 1645     Mikhail Romanov
1645 – 1676     Alexei
1676 – 1682     Feodor III
1682 – 1689     Ivan V
Emperors of Russia (from 1721)
1689 – 1725     Peter I the Great
1725 – 1727     Catherine I
1727 – 1730     Peter II
1730 – 1740     Anne
1741 – 1761     Elizabeth
1761 – 1762     Peter III
1762 – 1796     Catherine II the Great
1796 – 1801     Paul 
1801 – 1825     Alexander I
1825 – 1855     Nicholas I
1855 – 1881     Alexander II
1881 – 1894     Alexander III
1894 – 1917     Nicholas II

🇪🇸 Monarchs of Spain…

House of Trastámara
1474 – 1504     Isabella I     (1451-1504)     Daughter of John II of Castile 
1475 – 1516     Ferdinand V     (1452-1516)     Son of John II of Aragon 
1505 – 1555 Joanna the Mad (1479-1555)
1506 – 1506 Philip I (1478-1506)
House of Habsburg
1516 – 1556 Charles I (1500-1558)
1556 – 1598 Philip II (1527-1598)
1598 – 1621 Philip III (1578-1621)
1621 – 1665 Philip IV (1605-1665)
1665 – 1700 Charles II (1661-1700)
House of Bourbon
1700 – 1724 Philip V (1683-1746)
1724 – 1724 Louis I (1707-1724)
1724 – 1746 Philip V (1683-1746)
1746 – 1759 Ferdinand VI (1713-1759)
1759 – 1788 Charles III (1716-1788)
1788 – 1808 Charles IV (1748-1819)
1808 – 1808 Ferdinand VII (1784-1833)
House of Bonaparte
1808 – 1813 Joseph I (1768-1844)
House of Bourbon (1813-1868)
1813 – 1833 Ferdinand VII (1784-1833)
1833 – 1868 Isabella II (1833-1868)
House of Savoy
1870 – 1873 Amadeo I (1845-1890)
House of Bourbon (1874-1931)
1874 – 1885 Alfonso XII (1857-1885)
1886 – 1931 Alfonso XIII (1886-1941)
House of Bourbon (1975 – present)
1975 – 2014 Juan Carlos I (1938-xxxx)
2014 – xxxx Felipe VI (1968-xxxx)

🇸🇪 Monarchs of Sweden…

House of Munsö
970 – 995         Eric the Victorious     (945-995)
House of Vasa
1523 -1560 Gustav I (1496-1560)
1560 – 1568 Eric XIV (1533-1577)
1568 – 1592 John III (1537-1592)
1592 – 1599 Sigismund (1566-1632)
1604 – 1611 Charles IX (1550-1611)
1611 – 1632 Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632)
1632 – 1654 Christina (1626-1689)
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
1654 – 1660 Charles X Gustav (1622-1660)
1660 – 1697 Charles XI (1655-1697)
1697 – 1718 Charles XII (1682-1718)
1718 – 1720 Ulrica Eleanor (1688-1741)
House of Hesse
1720 – 1751 Frederick I of Sweden (1676-1751)
House of Holstein-Gottorp
1751 – 1771 Adolf Fredrik (1710-1771)
1771 – 1792 Gustav III (1746-1792)
1792 – 1809 Gustav IV Adolf (1778-1809)
1809 – 1818 Charles XIII (1748-1818)
House of Bernadotte
1818 – 1844 Charles XIV John (1763-1844)
1844 – 1859 Oscar I (1799-1859)
1859 – 1872 Charles XV (1826-1872)
1872 – 1907 Oscar II (1829-1907)
1907 – 1950 Gustaf V (1858-1950)
1950 – 1973 Gustaf VI Adolf (1882-1973)
1973 – xxxx     Carl VXI Gustaf     (1946-xxxx)     Son of Gustav Adolf