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Battlefields / Fortifications

Europe’s history over the centuries is littered with conflict in which great battles were fought. the struggle for power through the ages, religious intolerance, conquering empires and kingdoms would eventually determine what europe is today. Some of those so dramatic that it would have a direct impact on the rest of the world and its history. Early in the twentieth century the rise and unification of powers in europe collied resulting in two world wars which left much destruction and death. So pivotal were these wars that countries from all over the world were forced to aligned with one side or another and even participate in the fighting.

Battles and conflicts took all shapes and sizes, some were gigantic battles fought by thousands over a day to several days.  As Advancing invasion armies approached major cities and fortified military positions a siege could wage on for over a year. As in world war I, fighting in some of these campaigns would last for months. One side could only move their frontal positions several hundred yards after a week of fighting, then loose it all back a month later.

The persecution of religious and ethnic groups would result in slavery, servitude, detention, death and genocide. This would force the persecuted to flee as refugees and others to go into underground resistance fighting.

These historical places can have memorials and monuments in their exact location to mark their place in history. Next to many of them are also the cemeteries of the fallen, castle ruins, etc. that are associated with these battles.

Fortifications in Europe…  

Below are listed sites of fortifications of different classes. Some became parts of old castles or citadel in which a whole city would exists within the fortified walls. Others could be military installations only for the use of the army for defensive purposes.

Caen Château

🇦🇱 Albania

Baleč
Dagnum

Austria

Fortress Hohensalzburg
Finstermünz Fortress

Belarus

Babruysk fortress
Brest fortress

🇧🇪 Belgium

Antwerp Providence
Fort de Stabroeck
Redoute de Berendrecht
Redoute de Capellen
Fort de Brasschaet
Fort de Schooten
Redoute de Schilde
Fort de Lierre
Forte de Wavre-Sainte-Catherine
Fort de Breendonck
Fort de Liezele
Redoute de Puers
Fort de Bornhem
Fort de Steendorp
Redoute d’Oorderen
Fort de Zwyndrecht

Liège Providence
Fort de Barchon
Fort d’Évegnée
Fort de Fléron
Fort de Chaudfontaine
Fort d’Embourg
Fort de Boncelles
Fort de Flémalle
Fort de Hollogne
Fort de Loncin
Fort de Lantin
Fort de Liers
Fort de Pontise
Fort de la Chartreuse
Citadelle of Liège
Fort d’Eben-Emael
Fort d’Aubin-Neufchâteau
Fort de Battice
Fort de Tancrémont

Namur Providence
Fort de Maizeret
Fort d’Andoy
Fort de Dave
Fort de Malonne
Fort de Suarlée
Fort de Cognelée
Fort de Marchovelett  

Bosnia & Herzegovina

Borač (fortress)
Blagaj Fort
Bobovac
Bužim Fort
Citadel Počitelj
Fortress of Doboj
Fazlagić Tower
Glamoč Fortress
Hodidjed
Kastel Fortress
Komotin Fort
Maglaj Fortress
Pavlovac (fortress)
Srebrenik Fortress
Vidoski
Visočica hill
Walled city of JajceZvornik Fortress 

🇧🇬 Bulgaria

Markeli
Asen’s Fortress
Belogradchik Fortress (Kaleto)

🇭🇷 Croatia

Brod Fortress
Dinarić Fortress
Knin Fortress
Lovrijenac
Mirabella Fortress (Peovica)
Monkodonja
Nečven
Nehaj Fortress
NesactiumPrevlaka Fortress
Prozor Fortress
Sisak Fortress
St. Michael’s Fortress, Šibenik
Starigrad Fortress (Fortica)
Tvrđa

🇨🇾 Cyprus

Walls of Nicosia
Famagusta Gate
Kyrenia Gate 

Czechia

Josefov Fortress
Roman fort, Mušov
Stachelberg
Terezín
Vitrified fort  

🇩🇰 Denmark

Flakfortet
Middelgrundsfortet
Trekroner Fort 

Estonia

Toomemägi
Toompea
Varbola Stronghold

Peter the Great’s Naval Fortress
– Aegna
– Kakumäe
– Naissaar
– Suurupi
– Viimsi

Finland

Fortress of Suomenlinnea

🇫🇷 France

Group Fortifications of Aisne
Fort des Ayvelles
Bastille (Grenoble)
Petit Bé
Fort of Beauregard (Besançon)
Fort de Bellegarde
Fort de Bertheaume
Citadel of Besançon
Fort des Bordes
Fort de Bourlémont
Fort Boyard (fortification)
Fort of Bregille
Fort de Bron
Fort de Caluire
Fort Carré
Citadel of Lille
Fort de Condé-sur-Aisne
Fort de la Crèche
Fort Decaen
Fort Déroulède
Fort Douaumont
Fort Dubois
Fort Duchère
Fort des Dunes
Fort l’Écluse
Fort Enet
Fort de Feyzin
Fort de Brégançon
Fort de la Conchée
Fort de La Prée
Fort de Mutzig
Fort du Portalet
Fort Fleur d’épée
Fort Liberia
Fort Mahon
Fort National
Fort of Justices
Fort of Rosemont
Fort Rapp
Fort Risban
Fort Saint-Elme (France)
Forts of Metz
Group Fortifications Francois-de-Guise
Führer Headquarters
Fort Gambetta
Heurt Fort
Fort de Joux
Fort Lauvallieres
Group Fortification Lorraine
Fort Louvois
Fort de Loyasse
Lunettes of Trois-Châtels and Tousey
Group Fortification Marne
Meuse-Line
Fort du Mont Verdun
Fort Montbarey
Moselle-Line
Fort Ney (Fransecky)
Fort of Planoise
Questel Fort
Fort Saint-Jean (Marseille)
Fort Saint-Jean (Lyon)
Fort de Saint-Julien
Fort Saint-Privat
Fortifications of Saint-Quentin
Fort de Salses
Fort de Seclin
Tour Royale, Toulon
Fort de Tournoux
Fort de Vancia
Fort Vaux
Group Fortification Verdun
Fort de Viraysse
Vitrified fort
Lines of Weissenburg
Group Fortification Yser

🇩🇪 Germany

Ayers Kaserne
Wildenstein Castle (Leibertingen)
Ehrenbreitstein Fortress
Grauerort fortress
Königstein Fortress
Moritzburg Fortress
Petersberg Citadel
Saalburg
Spandau Citadel
Fortress of Ulm
Veste Coburg
Veste Oberhaus
Mainz Citadel  

🇬🇷 Greece

Palamidi
New Fortress of Corfu
Firka Fortress
Fortress of Pantokrator
Mystras
Monemvasia  

Hungary

Fuzer Fortress

🇮🇸 Iceland

Borgarvirki Fortress

🇮🇪 Ireland

Charles Fort

🇮🇹 Italy

Forte Spagnolo, L’Aquila
Fort Bard, Bard
Forte a Mare, Brindisi
Walls of Genoa
Fortress of Orsini
Priamar Fortress, Savona
Fortress of San Leo, Marche
Belvedere, Florence 

🇱🇻 Latvia

Daugavpils Fortress (Dinaburg)

🇱🇹 Lithuania

Apuolė
Aukštupėnai mound
Karmazinai mound
Kernavė
Molavėnai
Napoleon’s Hill
Pilėnai
Ukmergė
Seventh Fort
Ninth Fort
Voruta  

Luxembourg

Boch Cassments
Boch Promontory
Chemin de la Corniche
Fort Thüngen
Hollow Tooth
Holy Ghost Citadel
Lambert Redoubt
Petrusse Casements
Spanish Turret
Trois Tours  

🇲🇹 Malta

Fort Benghisa
Fort Binġemma
Fort Cambridge
Fort Campbell
Fort Chambray
Fort Delimara
Fort Leonardo
Fort Madalena
Fort Manoel
Fort Mosta
Fort Pembroke
Fort Ricasoli
Fort Rinella
Fort Saint Angelo
Fort Saint Elmo
Fort San Lucian
Fort Saint Michael
Fort Saint Rocco
Fort San Salvatore
Fort Spinola
Fort Tas-Silġ
Fort Tigné
Fort Verdala  

🇳🇱 Netherlands

Fort Nassau
Fort Bourtange
Fort Pampus
Fort de Roovere
Wierickerschans
Fort along Den Ham
Fort near De Kwakel
Muiden Fortress
Fort Vijfhuizen
Vuurtoreneiland 

Norway

Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Audunborg in Jølster
Bergenhus Fortress in Bergen
Båhus Fortress
Hamarhus Castle in Hamar
Isegran in Fredrikstad
Steinvikholm Castle in Stjørdal
Sverresborg Castle in Trondheim
Sverresborg Castle in Bergen
Tønsberg Fortress
Vardøhus Fortress
Fredriksberg fortress
Fredriksholm Fortress (Kristiansand)
Fredrikstad Fortress
Fredriksten Fortress
Fredriksværn
Kongsvinger Fortress
Basmo Fortress
Blaker Fortress
Christiansfjell Fortress (Elverum)
Munkholmen Fortress (Trondheim)
Staverns Fortress
Christiansholm Fortress (Kristiansand)
Christiansø Fortress
Kristiansten Fortress (Trondheim)
Altenhus Fortress (Alta)
Hegra Fortress
Kvarven Fort
Odderøya Fortress
Oscarsborg Fortress
Trondenes Fort
Meløyvær Fortress
Møvik Fortress  

🇵🇱 Poland

Kłodzko Fortress
Kraków Fortress
Międzyrzecz Fortification Region
Modlin Fortress
Osowiec
Poznań Fortress
Toruń Fortress
Warsaw Fortress

🇵🇹 Portugal

Belém Tower, Lisbon
Fort of Guincho, Cascais
Fort of Leça de Palmeira, Porto
Castelo da Póvoa, Póvoa de Varzim
Fort of São Sebastião de Caparica, Almada
Fort of Nossa Senhora da Encarnação, Lagoa
Fort of Nossa Senhora da Rocha, Lagoa
Fort of Pessegueiro Island, Sines
Fort of Santa Catarina, Portimão
Fort of São João Baptista, Peniche
Fort of São João do Arade, Lagoa
Fort of São Pedro do Estoril, Cascais
Fort of São João Baptista, Angra do Heroísmo
Fort of Greta, Horta
Fort of Negrito, Angra do Heroísmo
Valença Fortress, Valença  

Russia

Alexandrov Kremlin
Astrakhan Kremlin
Fort Alexander (St. Petersburg)
Gdov Kremlin
Ivangorod fortress
Kazan Kremlin
Kolomna Kremlin
Kronstadt
Moscow Kremlin
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
Novgorod Kremlin
Peter and Paul Fortress, Saint Petersburg
Por-Bazhyn, Tuva Republic
Tobolsk Kremlin
Tula Kremlin

🇪🇸 Spain

Muralla de Santiago de Compostela
Fort Chinchilla
Fort Jerez de los Caballeros
Fort Cartagena
Batería de Aspiroz
Muelle de Gallineras
Fuerte de Punta Carnero
Fuerte de San García
Batería de San Genís
Fort San Marcos
Batería de San Melitón de la Calavera
Fort Sancti Petri (San Fernando)
Batería de Urrutia
Fort Peníscola
Fort Molina de Aragón
Fort Coria
Fort Sant Ferran (Figueres)
Fort Cartaya
Fort Niebla
Fort Cortegana
Muralla urbana de Marbella
Fort San Felipe
Fort Caravaca de la Cruz
Fort Olite
Fort San Cristóbal
Fort Bellver
Alcázar of Segovia
Fort Berlanga de Duero
Fort Toledo
Fort Encinas de Esgueva
Fort Peñafiel
Fort Simancas
Fort Villalba de los Alcores
Aljaferia

🇸🇪 Sweden

Bodens fästning
Carlsten
Bohus Fästning
Karlsborg Fortress 

Switzerland

Fort de Champillon
Fort de Chillon
Mueterschwanderberg 

🇹🇷 Turkey

Anadoluhisarı
Casemates of İbrahim Pasha
Diyarbakır Fortress
Rumelihisarı
Yedikule Fortress 

Ukraine

Arabat Fortress
Borysohlibska Fortress
Charax, Crimea
Chufut-Kale
Kerch (fortress)
Khadjibey
Khortytsia
Khotyn Fortress
Kiev Fortress
Kodak Fortress
Letychiv Fortress
Lysa Hora (Kiev)
Medzhybizh Fortress
Okopy, Ternopil Oblast
Ukrainian line
Yeni-Kale

🇬🇧 United Kingdom

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 England

Maunsell Sea Forts
Dymchurch Redoubt
Eastbourne Redoubt
Fort Burgoyne
Admiralty Pier Turret
Dover Western Heights
Littlehampton Redoubt
Newhaven Fort
Saxon Shore Forts
Shoreham Redoubt
Coalhouse Fort
Cliffe Fort
New Tavern Fort
Shornmead Fort
Slough Fort
Tilbury Fort
Fort Horsted
Fort Amherst
Fort Borstal
Fort Bridgewood
Fort Clarence
Fort Darnet
Fort Luton
Fort Hoo
Fort Pitt
Garrison Point Fort
Grain Fort & Grain Tower Battery
Crookhorn Redoubt
Fort Fareham
Farlington Redoubt
Fort Nelson
Fort Southwick
Fort Purbrook
Fort Wallington
Fort Widley
Fort Blockhouse
Fort Brockhurst
Fort Elson
Fort Gilkicker
Fort Grange
Fort Monckton
Fort Rowner
Fort Cumberland
Lumps Fort
Horse Sand Fort
No Mans Land Fort
Spitbank Fort
St Helens Fort
Liscard Battery
Fort Perchrock
Bath Side Battery
Beacon Hill Battery
Harwich Redoubt
Landguard Fort
Shotley Battery
Weymouth
Nothe Fort
Chudleigh Fort
Berry Head
Bristol Channel
Brean Down Fort
Bayard’s Cove Fort
Royal Citadel
Agaton Fort
Breakwater Fort
Cawsand Fort
Crownhill Fort
Ernesettle Fort
Fort Bovisand
Picklecombe Fort
Polhawn Fort
Fort Scraesdon
Fort Tregantle
Whitesand Bay Battery
Woodlands Fort
Verne Citadel
East Weare Battery
High Angle Battery
Blacknor Fort  
The Humber Forts
Fort Paull
The Tyne Turrets 

Northern Ireland

Ballygalley –  Ballygalley

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 Scotland

Bennachie
Tap o’ Noth
White Caterthun and Brown Caterthun
An Caisteal, Coll
Dùn Cholla, Colonsay
Dùn Dubh, Coll
Dùn Eibhinn, Colonsay
Dùn Meadhonach, Colonsay
Dùn Morbhaidh, Coll
Dunadd
Dun Skeig, Kintyre
Castle Law, Dumyat
Doon of May
Grennan Hill
Tynron Doon 
Black Castle
Blackcastle Hill
Chesters Hill Fort 
Traprain Law
White Castle
Arthur’s Seat
Blackford Hill
Clatchard Craig
Norman’s Law
Dunearn
Dun Evan
Dun Ringill
Craig Phadrig, Inverness 
Castle Law
Cluny Hill
Doune of Relugas
Knock of Alves
Moredun Top hill fort, Moncreiffe Hill
Edin’s Hall Broch
Eildon Hill
Peniel Heugh
Black Hill 
Dumyat
Gillies Hill
Dumbarton Rock
Bowden hill fort
Peace Knowe hill fort
Castlethorn hill fort
Cockleroy hill fort
Dùn Èistean

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿Wales

Dale Fort
Fort Hubberstone
Popton Fort
Pill Fort
Chapel Bay Fort
South Hook Fort
Fort Scoveston
Stack Rock Fort
Thorn Island Fort
St Catherine’s Fort
Fort Belan  

Major Historical Battles..

This table shows battles that had major consequences in determining the history of Europe. What would have Europe been today had the Ottomans’s captured Vienna. Would the most of Europe be under the influence of the Islamic faith? What if Napoleon had defeated the Coalition at Waterloo? Would France’s strength have occupied more of Europe and prohibiting the rise of Germany power, thus thwarting the conflicts that led to World War I? If no World War I would there have been a World War II? So significant where these results that Europe, as it is today, for better or worse, could be very different.   

EventConflictPresent LocationDate
Battle of MarathonGreco – Persian WarAttica, Greece490 BC
Sea Battle of SalamisGreco – Persian WarSalamis, Greece480 BC
Battle of SyracusePeloponnesian WarSicily415-413 BC
Battle of Cannae2nd Punic WarCanna, Italy8/2/216 BC
Battle of Metaurus2nd Punic WarMarche, Italy207 BC
Battle of AlesiaRoman-Gallic WarsBourgeois, France51 BC
Sea Battle of ActiumAntony’s Civil Waroff Actium, Greece31 BC
Battle of Teutoburg Forest (Arminius)Roman-Germanic WarsKalkriese, Germany9/9 AD
Melvin Bridge BattleTetrarchy Civil WarRome, Italy10/28/312
Sea Battle of HellespontWars of ConstantineThe Dardanelles, Turkey7/324
Battle of AdrianopleGothic WarEdirne, Turkey8/9/378
Battle of Catalonian Fields (Câhlons)Hunnic InvasionChampagne, France6/20/451
Siege of ConstantinopleArab-Byzintine WarsIstanbul, Turkey718
Uprising of CovadangaReconquistaCovadanga, Spain718-722
Battle of ToulouseReconquistaToulouse, France721
Battle of Tours (Poitiers)ReconquistaTours, France10/10/732
Battle of HastingsNorman ConquestHastings, England10/14/1066
Battle of Gvozd MountainWar of Croatian SuccessionPetra Gora, Croatia1097
Battle of Las Navas de TolosaReconquistaLas Navas de Tolosa, Spain7/16/1212
Battle of BouvinesAnglo-French WarBouvines, France1214
Battle of SluysHundred Years WarSluis, Netherlands6/24/1340
Battle of NájeraCastilian Civil WarNájera, Spain4/3/1367
Battle of AljubarrottaPortuguese Crisis Aljubarrotta, Portugal8/14/1385
Battle of SempachSwiss Expansion WarSempach, Switzerland7/9/1386
Battle of KosovoSerbian-Ottoman WarsPristina, Serbia6/15/1389
Agincourt CampaignHundred Years WarAgincourt, France10/25/1415
Siege of OrléansHundred Years WarOrleans, France10/12/1428-5/8/1429
Battle of FormignyHundred Years WarFormigny, France4/15/1450
Siege of ConstantinopleByzintine-Ottoman WarsIstanbul, Turkey4/6-5/29/1453
Battle of Lochmaben FairAnglo-Scottish WarsLochmaben, Scotland7/22/1484
Battle of CrevolaTransalpine ConflictCrevoladossola, Italy4/28/1487
Battle of SauchieburnRebellion against James IIIStirling, Scotland6/11/1488
Siege & War of GranadaReconquistaGranada, Spain4/1491-1/1492
Battle Krbrava FieldCroatian-Ottoman WarLika, Croatia9/9/1493
Battle of RotebroDano-Swedish WarRotor, Sweden9/28/1497
Battle of MarignanoWar of the League of CambraiMelegnano, Italy9/13-14/1515
Battle of MohácsOttoman – Hungarian WarsMohács, Hungary8/29/1526
Siege of ViennaOttoman Hapsburg WarsVienna, Austria9/27-10/15/1529
Battle of MühlbergSchmalkaldic WarMühlberg, Germany4/24/1547
Siege of NarvaLivonia WarNarva, Estonia4-6/1558
Siege of SzigetvárOttoman-Hasbburg WarsSzigetvár, Hungary8/6-9/8/1566
Battle of HeiligerleeEighty Years WarHeiligerlee, Netherlands5/23/1568
Battle of LepantoHoly League vs. Ottoman EmpireGulf of Patras, Ionian Sea, Greece10/7/1571
St. Bartholomew’s Day MassacreFrench Wars of ReligionParis, France8/23-24/1572
The Spanish ArmadaAnglo-Spanish WarEnglish Channel8/8/1588
Battle of SisakCroatian-Ottoman WarSisak, Croatia6/22/1593
Battle of White Mt.Thirty Years WarBílá Hora, Czechia11/8/1620
Siege of BredaAnglo-Spanish WarsBreda, Netherlands8/28/1624-6/5/1625
Battle of LützenThirty Years WarLützen, Germany11/6-16/1632
Battle of NördlingenThirty Years WarNördlingen, Germany9/5-6/1634
Battle of WittstockThirty Years WarWittstock, Germany10/4/1636
Battle of Naseby1st English Civil WarNaseby, England6/14/1645
Battle of ViennaOttoman InvasionVienna, Austria9/12/1683
Action at La HogueWar of the Grand AllianceSaint-Vaast-la-Hougue, France5/21-24/1692
Battle of ZentaGreat Turkish WarSenta, Serbia9/11/1697
Battle of BlenheimWar of Spanish SuccessionHöchstädt, Germany8/13/1704
Battle of RamilliesWar of Spanish SuccessionRamillies, Belgium5/23/1706
Battle of Pultowa (Poltava)Great Northern WarPoltava, Ukraine6/27-28/1709
Battle of DenainWar of Spanish SuccessionDeanna, France7/24/1712
Battle of FontenoyWar of Austrian SuccessionTourney, Belgium5/11/1745
Battle of LeuthenThird Silesian WarLutynia, Poland12/5/1757
Siege of GibraltarAmerican Revolutionary WarGibraltar6/24/1779-2/7/1783
Battle of ValmyFrench Revolutionary WarsValmy, France9/20/1792
Battle of MarengoWar of the 2nd CoalitionSpinetta-Marengo, Italy6/14/1800
Battle of AusterlitzNapoleonic WarsBrno, Czech Rep.12/2/1805
Sea Battle of TrafalgarWar of the 3rd CoalitionCape Trafalgar, Spain10/1805
Battle of BorodinoNapoleonic WarsBorodin, Russia9/7/1812
Battle of VitoriaPeninsula WarsVitoria, Spain6/21/1813
Battle of LeipzigWar of the 6th CoalitionLeipzig, Germany10/16-19/1813
Battle of WaterlooWar of the 7th CoalitionWaterloo, Belgium 6/18/1815
Battle of AkhalzicRusso-Turkish War 1828-29Akhaltsikhe, Georgia3/4/1829
Siege of SevastopolCrimean WarSevastopol, Ukraine10/17/1854 – 9/9/1855
Battle of Solferino2nd Italian War of IndependenceSolferino, Italy6/24/1859
Sea Battle of Lissa3rd Italian War of IndependenceLisa, Croatia7/20/1866
Battle of SedanFranco-Prussian WarSedan, France9/1-2/1870
Battle of Shipka PassRusso-Turkish War 1877-78Shipka Pass, Bulgaria1877-1878
WORLD WAR I Europe1914 -1918
First Battle of Marne WW IMarne, France9/6 – 10/1914
Gallipoli CampaignWW IDardanellles, Turkey4/25/1915-1/9/1916
Battle of JutlandWW INorth Sea5/31 – 6/1/1916
Battle of the SommeWW ILa Boiselle, France7/1 – 11/18/1916
Battle of VerdunWW IVerdun, France2/21- 12/18/1916
Battle of YpresWW IYpres, Belgium1914-1918
Brusilov OffensiveWW ILviv, Lutsk & Kovel, Ulkraine6/4 – 9/20/1916
Battle of AmiensWW IAmiens, France8/8-11/1918
Battle of Vittorio-VenetoWW IVittorio, Italy10/24-11/4/1918
Battle of WarsawPolish-Soviet WarWarsaw, Poland8/13/1920
Battle of BelchiteSpanish Civil WarBelchite, Spain8/24-9/7/1937
WORLD WAR II Europe1939-1945
Battle of SedanWW IISedan, France5/12-15/1940
Battle of BrodyWW IIBroday, Ukraine6/1941
2nd Battle of KharkovWW IIKharkov, Ukraine5/1942
Siege of LeningradWW IILeningrad, Soviet Union9/8/1941-1/27/1944
Battle of StalingradWW IIStalingrad, Soviet Union11/1942-1/1943
Battle of KurskWW IIKursk, Soviet Union7-8/ 1943
Battle of Monte CassinoWW IICassino, Italy1-5/1944
Battle of AnzioWW IIAnzio, Italy1-6/ 1944
D Day InvasionWW IINormandy, France6/6/1944
Battle of ArnhemWW IINetherlands9/17-26/1944
Battle of the BulgeWW IIBastogne, Belgium12/16/1944-1/25/1945
Battle of RemagenWW IIRemagen, Germany3/7-15/1945
Battle of BerlinWW IIBerlin, Germany4-6/1945

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