Demographics are the criteria about a society that can be broken down into many different fields of information. We will provide just some demographic information that may be useful to the traveler in Europe.

The People
The People
The Languages
The Languages
The Religions
The Religions

Statistics can vary depending on how one currently defines boarders. In recent years independence, disputed and occupied areas of some countries have added to this confusion. Russians do make up the largest portion of the population with Germans second. The following are totals for European ethno-linguistic groups that reside not within just within their countries but, also in other European countries as a whole.

Block Title

Russians – 100 m
Germans – 93 m
French – 72 m
British – 66 m
Italians – 60 m

Ukrainians – 38-55 m
Spaniards – 41-50 m
Poles – 38-45 m
Romanians – 20-25 m
Dutch – 15-25 m
Turks – 10-20 m

Portuguese – 15 m
Greeks – 15 m
Czechs – 10 m
Hungarians – 10 m
Serbs – 10 m

While most of Europe is of caucasian European ancestry, Europe is seeing and ever growing minority population similar to the US. Since World War II Europe’s population has had an overall negative growth rate. Immigration can always change the face of a culture and just like in the US., the need for laborers and workers, has been filled primarily by immigrants from other countries. France has had growth with north African immigrants and Germany with Turkish. Recently a wave of refugees seeking asylum from conflicts in the Middle East. There is some opposition to this immigration also a, as people are afraid it will change the country they live and not for the better. For more detailed information on ethno-linguistics groups by country, go to our ➾ People section below. 

Religion has also changed in most of Europe. While dominated by christianity for centuries, some countries have growing numbers of non-believers. As well, the influx of immigrants have brought a rise of other faiths, mainly Islam. Listed below on this page are some statistics on population and languages.


Europe is the 3rd most populous continent behind Asia and Africa with a population of 739 million.  Today is about 12% of the worlds total population with its height at 28% in 1913.

Being the second smallest continent makes it rather densely populated at 72.9 inhabitants per km, second behind Asia. However, Europe’s population growth rate is one of the smallest at 0.212% with the world rate at 1.89%.

The Europe Union has an estimated 2016 population of 513,949,445 making it the third most populated country behind China and India.

Country2020 shareworld rankurban pop.%
🇷🇺 Russia141,722,2051.87%973.0%
🇷🇺 Europe Russia113,112,40614.26 %
🇹🇷 Turkey82,017,5141.06 %1873.4%
🇩🇪 Germany80,159,6621.07 %1976%
🇫🇷 France67,848,1560.85%2181%
🇬🇧 United Kingdom65,761,1170.87%2281%
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 England53,012,456
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 Scotland5,404,700
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 Wales3,113,200
N. Ireland3,113,200
🇮🇹 Italy62,402,6590.77%2371%
🇪🇸 Spain50,015,7920.60%2983%
🇺🇦 Ukraine43,922,9390.57%3370%
🇵🇱 Poland38,282,3250.49%3761%
🇷🇴 Romania21,302,8930.25%5961%
🇳🇱 Netherlands17,280,3970.22%6792%
🇧🇪 Belgium11,720,7160.15%8096%
🇨🇿 Czechia10,702,4980.14%8575%
🇬🇷 Greece10,607,0510.14%8679%
🇵🇹 Portugal10,302,6740.13%8968%
🇸🇪 Sweden10,202,4910.13%9186%
🇭🇺 Hungary9,771,8270.13%9374%
🇦🇹 Austria8,859,4490.114%9758.3%
🇷🇸 Serbia7,012,1650.092%10555.6%
🇧🇬 Bulgaria6,966,8990.092%10673.9%
🇩🇰 Denmark5,869,4100.076%11587.7%
🇳🇴 Norway5,467,4390.069%11980.5%
🇮🇪  Ireland5,176,5690.063%12263.2%
🇭🇷 Croatia4,227,7460.054%12759.0%
🇧🇦 Bosnia Herzegovina3,835,5860.047%13139.8%
🇲🇩 Moldova3,364,4960.047%13345.0%
🇦🇱 Albania3,074,5790.038%13657.4%
🇱🇹 Lithuania2,731,4640.037%14166.5%
🇲🇰 North Macedonia2,125,9710.027%14757.1%
🇸🇮 Slovenia2,102,6780.027%14849.6%
🇽🇰 Kosovo1,932,7740.023%150N/A
🇨🇾 Cyprus1,266,6760.011%15766.9%
🇪🇪 Estonia1,228,6240.017%15867.5%
🇱🇺 Luxembourg628,3810.0079%16990.2%
🇲🇪 Montenegro609,8590.0082%17164.0%
🇲🇹 Malta457,2670.0057%17595.4%
🇮🇸 Iceland350,7340.0046%17894.1
🇯🇪 Jersey101,0730.0041%196N/A
🇮🇲 Isle of Man (UK)90,4990.0011%199N/A
🇦🇩 Andorra77,0000.001%201N/A
🇬🇬 Guernsey67,0520.0082%204N/A
🇩🇰 Faroe Islands51,6280.00067%20943%
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein39,1370.0005%21314.3%
🇲🇨 Monaco39,0000.0005%214100%
🇸🇲 San Marino34,2320.00044%21692.4%
🇬🇮 Gibraltar29,5810.00044%218100%
🇳🇴 Svalbard2,926N/A230N/A
🇻🇦 Holy See – Vatican1,0000.00001%236100%
Data Source CIA World Factbook

Being the second smallest continent makes it rather densely populated at 72.9 inhabitants per km, second behind Asia. Most European countries are more densely populated that the Untied States rate of 86 people per square mile.

However, Europe’s population growth rate is one of the smallest at 0.212% with the world rate at 1.89%. Table below is ranked by population destiny. Monaco having the highest destiny of people per square mile and Iceland with the lowest.

Population Destiny by Country
CountryArea (sq.mi)Density (sq.mi)Annual Growth RateGrowth Rank
🇲🇨 Monaco.7848,14500.65162
🇻🇦 Holy See – Vatican.174,7090.03236
🇲🇹 Malta1223,7840.55168
🇸🇲 San Marino241,4140.78142
🇳🇱 Netherlands16,0331,0750.30202
🇧🇪 Belgium11,7879690.63165
🇬🇧 United Kingdom93,7887020.65163
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 England50,3011,098
N. Ireland5,456344
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 Scotland30,981174
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 Wales8,023388
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein626140.7665
🇱🇺 Luxembourg9986031.8057
🇩🇪 Germany137,9036010.20207
🇨🇭 Switzerland15,9405311.21127
🇮🇹 Italy116,336521-0.08183
🇦🇩 Andorra179448-1.59193
🇽🇰 Kosovo4,2124221.08151
🇨🇾 Cyprus2,2763761.1594
🇨🇿 Czechia30,4513500.13213
🇩🇰 Denmark16,6403470.48179
🇫🇷 France210,0263210.45184
🇵🇱 Poland120,728319-0.03209
🇵🇹 Portugal35,556290-0.44192
🇸🇰 Slovakia18,9332870.13214
🇦🇹 Austria32,3862720.63164
🇭🇺 Hungary35,919272-0.29216
🇲🇩 Moldova13,067272-0.09231
🇹🇷 Turkey302,5352671.5898
🇸🇮 Slovenia7,8272640.29202
🇦🇱 Albania11,0822590.31175
🇪🇸 Spain195,364238-0.17130
🇷🇸 Serbia29,913231-0.40224
🇷🇴 Romania92,043212-0.56221
🇬🇷 Greece50,949212-0.40204
🇲🇰 North Macedonia9,9282100.08217
🇭🇷 Croatia21,831189-0.43226
🇺🇦 Ukraine232,820181-0.50223
🇧🇦 Bosnia Herzegovina19,772179-0.03210
🇮🇪 Ireland27,1331760.31201
🇧🇬 Bulgaria42,858166-0.26229
🇧🇾 Belarus80,1551190.03215
🇲🇪 Montenegro5,3331170.12215
🇱🇹 Lithuania25,212111-1.27232
🇱🇻 Latvia24,92878-1.30233
🇪🇪 Estonia17,50575-0.25228
🇸🇪 Sweden173,860580.78156
🇳🇴 Norway125,013411.25123
🇫🇮 Finland130,666410.43190
🇷🇺 Russia6,612,093230.04219
🇷🇺 Europe Russia3,992,50027.22
🇮🇸 Iceland39,682 90.61166
Data Source CIA World Factbook

The people of Europe are a composition of many diverse ethno-linguistic groups. Visiting many areas you can see traditional customs observed through special events and in museums. The languages, clothing and cuisines can still be experienced. All of this diverse ethnicity can make Europe one of the best places to travel.

Over the centuries and even the millennia, groups of people have migrated, evolved and in some disappeared all together. Groups of people descended in pre-historic times into the Neolithic and Bronze ages with evidence like Stonehenge and others still existing. Historical populations where noted by Greco-Roman history during the Iron age in these areas.

  • Aegean: Greek tribes, Pelasgians, and Anatolians.
  • Balkans: Illyrians, Dacians, and Thracians.
  • Italian peninsula: Camunni, Rhaetians, Lepontii, Adriatic Veneti, Ligurians, Etruscans, Italic peoples and Greek colonies.
  • Western/Central Europe: Celts (list of peoples of Gaul, List of Celtic tribes), Rhaetians and Swabians, Vistula Veneti, Lugii and Balts.
  • Iberian peninsula: Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (Iberians, Lusitani, Aquitani, Celtiberians) Basques and Phoenicians (Carthaginians).
  • Sardinia: ancient Sardinians (also known as Nuragic people), comprising the Corsi, Balares and Ilienses tribes.
  • West European Isles: Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and Picts/Priteni.
  • Northern Europe: Finnic peoples, Germanic peoples; the Normans conquered and colonized South Italy and Sicily (Norman conquest of southern Italy).
  • Southern Europe: Sicani.
  • Eastern Europe: Scythians, Sarmatians.

After the fall of the Roman empire there was a large migration of peoples to Europe. Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe during historical times are: 

  • Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean (including regions in Spain, France, Malta, Italy and the Aegean).
  • Assyrian conquest of Cyprus, Southern Caucasus (including parts of modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) and Cilicia.
  • Iranian influence: Achaemenid control of Thrace (512–343 BC) and the Bosporan Kingdom, Cimmerians(possible Iranians), Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Ossetes.
  • The Jewish diaspora reached Europe in the Roman Empire period. Early Jewish communities in Italy, Central Europe (Gaul).
  • The Hunnic Empire (5th century), converged with the Barbarian invasions, contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire
  • The Bulgars (or Proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic people, originally from Central Asia, eventually absorbed by the Slavs.
  • The Magyars (Hungarians), a Ugric people, and the Turkic Pechenegs and Khazars, arrived in Europe in about the 8th century (see Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin).
  • Arabs conquered Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, some places along the coast of southern Italy, Malta, Greek Empire, Hispania.
  • Berber dynasties of the Almoravides and the Almohads ruled much of Spain and Portugal.
  • Exodus of Maghreb Christians
  • Kipchaks known as Cumans entered the lands of present-day Ukraine in the 11th century.
  • Mongol/Tatar invasions (1223–1480), and
  • Ottoman control of the Balkans (1389–1878).
  • Romani people (Gypsies) arrived during the Late Middle Ages

Ethnic make up by country breaks down along the lines below. Note majority people may be composed of several ethnic groups. Since WWII Europe’s negative population and growth and the migration of people from other countries outside Europe have shifted the face of Europe’s culture slightly.

🇦🇱 Albania

Majority: Albanians 82.5%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: Greeks 2%, others 2%

🇦🇹 Austria

Majority: Austrian-Germans 85%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: Yugoslavs 5.2%, Turks 2.2%, Hungarians 1%, others 6.6%

🇧🇾 Belarus

Majority: Belarusian83.5%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: Russians 8.3% , Poles 3.1%, Ukrainians 1.7%, others 3.2%

🇧🇪 Belgium

Majority: Flemings 58%
Regional Majority: Walloons 38%, Germans 1%
Minorities: Luxembourgers, Eastern or Southern Europeans, Africans and Asians and Latin Americans 10%

🇧🇦 Bosnia & Herzegovina

Majority: Bosniaks 51.11%
Regional Majority: Serbs 30.78%, Croats 15.43%
Minorities: other 2.73%

🇧🇬 Bulgaria

Majority: Bulagrians 84.8%
Regional Majority: Turks 8.8%
Minorities: Roma 4.9%, others 1.5% (includes Russians, Armenians, Tartars & Vlach)

🇭🇷 Croatia

Majority: Croats 90.4%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: Serbs 4.4%, others 5.2% (including Bosniaks, Hungarians, Slovenes, Czechs, Dalmatian Italians, Austrian-Germans, Romanians and Romani)

🇩🇰 Denmark

Majority: Danes 88.7%
Regional Majority: Faroese
Minorities: other Scandinavian, Germans, Frisians, other European, Greenlandic Inuit and others

🇪🇪 Estonia

Majority: Estonians 68.7%
Regional Majority: Russians 24.9%
Minorities: Ukrainians 1.8%, Belarusians 0.9%, Finns 0.6% and others 3.6%

🇫🇮 Finland

Majority: Finns 89%
Regional Majority: Swedes 5.3%
Minorities: Russians 1.3% and Estonians 0.8%

🇫🇷 France

Majority: French 86%
Regional Majority: Bretons, Corsicans, Occitans, Alsatians, Arpitans, Basques, Catalans and Flemings
Minorities: other European 7%, North African 7%, Sub-Saharan African, Indochinese, Asian, Latin American and Pacific Islander

🇩🇪 Germany

Majority: Germans 80.8%
Regional Majority: Frisians and Sorbians
Minorities: other Europeans 11.7%, West Asians, Turks 3.4%, Arabs, other Asians 1.3%, Africans 0.6% and Americans 0.5%

🇬🇷 Greece

Regional Majority: Muslim minority, Armenians and Jews
Minorities: Albanians 4%, Romani 1.5-2.3%, Aromanians 1.8%, Macedonians/Bulgarians 0.9-1.8%, Cretan Turks est. 1% and Arvanites 0.9%

🇭🇺 Hungary

Majority: Hungarians 85.6%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: Romani 3.2%, Germans 1.9%, others (i.e. Romanians, Slovaks, Croats, Serbs, Slovenes and Ruthenians) or not stated 14.1%

🇮🇸 Iceland

Majority: Icelanders 91%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: Poles 4% and others 5% (examples are Filipinos, Greeks, Portuguese people and Russians

🇮🇪 Ireland

Majority: Irish 82.2%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: other white (large numbers of Britons, Latvians, Poles and Ukrainians) 9.5%, Asians 2.1%, blacks 1.2%, Irish Travellers 0.7% and others/not stated 4.3%

🇮🇹 Italy

Majority: Italians 92.8%
Regional Majority: Aosta Valley French, Friulians, South Tirol Germans, Sardinians, and Sicilians.
Minorities: North Africans 1%, Romanians 1%, Asians (non-Chinese) 0.8%, Albanians 0.8%, Sub-Saharan Africans 0.5%, Latin Americans 0.5%, Chinese 0.3%, Ukrainians 0.3% and others 1%. Arbëreshë, Italiot Greeks, Catalans, Occitans, Ladins, Croats, Romani and Italian Jews.

🇱🇻 Latvia

Majority: Latvians 62.%
Regional Majority: Latgalians, and Russians 25.4%
Minorities: Belarusian 3.3%, Ukrainians 2.2%, Poles 2.1%, Lithuanians 1.1% and others/unspecified 4.8%

🇱🇹 Lithuania

Majority: Lithuanians 86.7%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: Poles 5.6%, Russians 4.8%, Belarusians 1.3%, Ukrainians 0.7% and others 0.9%

🇲🇹 Malta

Majority: Maltese 95.2%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: non-Maltese 4.8%

🇲🇩 Moldova

Majority: Moldovans 75.1%
Regional Majority: Gagauzs 4.6%, Bulgarians 1.9%, and Romani
Minorities: Romanians 7%, Ukrainians 6.6%, Russians 4.1%, and others 0.8%

🇲🇪 Montenegro

Majority: Montenegrins 45%
Regional Majority: Serbs 28.7% and Sandžak Muslims
Minorities: Bosniaks and Muslims by nationality 11.9%, Albanians 4.9%, Croats 0.9%, Romani 0.8%, Macedonians 0.1% and others 4.9%

🇳🇱 Netherlands

Majority: Dutch 77.4%
Regional Majority: Frisians
Minorities: other Europeans 9.9%, Turks 2.3%, Moroccans 2.3%, Indonesians2.1%, Surinamese 2%, Caribbeans 0.9%, Americans 0.2% and others 2.9%

🇲🇰 North Macedonia

Majority: Macedonians 64%
Regional Majority: Albanians 25.2%, Turks 4%
Minorities: Romani 2.7%, Serbs 1.8%, and other (i.e. Bosniaks, Aromanians, Croats, Montenegrins and Bulgarians) 2.2%

🇳🇴 Norway

Majority: Norwegians 85 – 87%
Regional Majority: Sami 1.2 – 2.5%
Minorities: Poles 1.4%. approximately 12% (Swedes, Pakistanis, Somalis, Iraqis and Kurds, Vietnamese, Germans, Lithuanians, Russians and Indians

🇵🇱 Poland

Majority: Poles 98%
Regional Majority: Frisians
Minorities: others or not started 2%

🇵🇹 Portugal

Majority: Portuguese 96.3%
Regional Majority: Mirandese
Minorities: others 3.7% like Afro-Portuguese, Chinese people, Latin Americans, Ukrainians and ex-Yugoslavs

🇷🇴 Romania

Majority: Romanians 83.4%
Regional Majority: Hungarians 6.1%
Minorities: Romani 3.0%, Germans 0.2%, Ukrainians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%, Russians 0.1%  and Chinese 0.1%

🇷🇺 Russia

Majority: Russians 80.9%
Regional Majority: Tatars 3.9%, Bashkirs 1.2%, Chuvash1%, Chechens 1%, Ossetians 0.4%, Kabardians 0.4%, Ingush 0.3%, Kalmyks 0.1%
Minorities: Ukrainians 1.4%, Armenians 0.9%, Avars 0.7%, Mordvins 0.5% and others.

🇷🇸 Serbia

Majority:  Serbian 83.3%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities:Hungarians 3.5%, Romani 2.1%, Bosniaks and Muslims by nationality 2.3%, Croats 0.8%, Slovaks 0.7%, Montenegrins 0.5%, Vlachs 0.5%, Romanians 0.4%, Yugoslavs 0.3%, Macedonians0.3%, Bulgarians 0.3% and others/unspecified 5.1%.

🇸🇰 Slovakia

Majority:  Slovaks 80.7%
Regional Majority: Hungarians 8.5%
Minorities:Romani 2.0%, Czechs 0.6%, Rusyns 0.6%, Ukrainians 0.1% and others/unspecified 7.5%

🇸🇮 Slovenia

Majority:  Slovenes 83.1%
Regional Majority: none
Minorities: Serbs 2%, Croats 1.8%, Bosniaks 1.1%, others (Dalmatian Italians, Germans, Hungarians and Romanians) and/or unspecified 12%

🇪🇸 Spain

Majority: Spaniards 89%
Regional Majority: Included Castilians and Leonese, Catalans/Valencians, Galicians, Asturians, Basques and Canarians
Minorities: Gypsies, Jews, Latin Americans, Romanians, North Africans, sub-Saharan Africans, Chinese, Filipinos, Levant Arabs, British

🇸🇪 Sweden

Majority: Swedes 88%
Regional Majority: Finns (Tornedalians), Sami people and Kvens
Minorities: Finns (Sweden Finns), Yugoslavs (Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks), Danes, Norwegians, Russians, Arabs (Lebanese and Syrians), Syriacs, Greeks, Turks, Iranians, Iraqis, Pakistanis, Thais, Koreans and Chileans

🇨🇭 Switzerland

Majority: German Speakers 63%
Regional Majority: French-speakers 22,7%, Italian-speakers 8.4% and Romansh people 0.6
Minorities: others 5.9%

🇹🇷 Turkey

Majority: Turks 73%%
Regional Majority: Kurds 12%
Minorities: others 15%: Zazas, Laz, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Circassians, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Assyrians, Armenians, Arabs, Albaniansand Romanians

🇺🇦 Ukraine

Majority: Ukrainians 77.8%
Regional Majority: Russians 17.3%
Minorities: Belarusians 0.6%, Moldovans 0.5%, Crimean Tatars 0.5%, Bulgarians 0.4%, Hungarians 0.3%, Romanians 0.3%, Poles0.3%, Jews 0.2%, Armenians 0.1%, Urums 0.1% and others 1.8%

🇬🇧 United Kingdom

Majority: White British 87.1%
Regional Majority: (consisting of English, Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish (could also be counted as Irish), also Cornish, Manx and Channel Islanders). Included are the inhabitants of Gibraltar
Minorities: Black British 3%, British Asians 6.9% and others 3%

There are over 80 languages use in Europe with every country having an official language and some secondary ones. Some of these secondary languages are recognized as regional dialects only.  European countries recognize 23 total official languages.

Languages used mostly use are of the Indo-European family with just several languages from the non-Indo-European family. Of the Indo-European languages English is the most common language used throughout most of Europe. Other widely used languages are French, German, Italian and Spanish.

Each country has it’s official language and several countries have two or more. Belgium has Dutch and French as it’s official languages while Switzerland recognized four. Each official country language is more prevalent in one area than another.

There are also regional languages spoken in small areas throughout Europe. These languages can be official languages of the region along with the official language of the country. In the northeast section of Spain, around Barcelona, Catalan is an official language, as well as Spanish the official language of Spain. In Wales, English and Welsh are both official languages.

Indo-European Languages

Language hierarchy are separated into their sub-divisions and dialects. Those in all caps are dominant languages with variant dialects spoken regionally. Click on the arrow(s) to open or close the tree branches.

  • Balto-Slavic languages
    • Baltic
      • Latvian 🇱🇻 🇪🇺 – Official language of Latvia and the European Union.
      • Lithuanian 🇱🇹 🇪🇺 – Official language of Lithuania and the European Union. Recognized minor language in Poland.
    • Slavic
      • Eastern Slavic
        • Belarusian 🇧🇾 – Official language of Belarus and some areas of Poland. Recognized minority language in Czechia, Russia and the Ukraine
        • Russian 🇷🇺 🇧🇾 – Official state language of Russia, Belarus. Also in some de facto entities and recognized as a minority language in Ukraine, Moldova, Poland and Romania.
        • Rusyn – Recognized minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia.
        • Ukrainian 🇺🇦 – Official language in Ukraine. Recognized minority language in Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czechia, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia.
      • Southern Slavic
        • Eastern
          • Bulgarian 🇧🇬 🇪🇺 Official language of Bulgaria and the European Union. Recognized minority language in Albania, Czechia, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
          • Macedonian 🇲🇰 – Official language of North Macedonia.Recognized minority language in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania and Serbia.
        • Western
          • Serbo-Croatian
            • Bosnian 🇧🇦 – Official language of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. Recognized minority language in Croatia, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia.
            • Burgenland-Croatian
            • Croatian 🇭🇷 🇪🇺– Official language of Croatia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and the European Union. Recognized minority language in Czechia, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro and Slovakia.
            • Montenegrin 🇲🇪 – Official language of Montenegro. Recognized minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
            • Serbian 🇷🇸 – Official language of Serbia, co-official in Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro.Recognized minority language in Croatia, Czechia, Hungary, North Macedonia, Romania and Slovakia.
          • Slovene 🇸🇮 🇪🇺 – Official language of Slovenia and the European Union.
      • Western Slavic
        • Czech-Slovak
          • Czech 🇨🇿 🇪🇺 – Official language of the Czechia and the European Union. Recognized minority language in Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia.
          • Slovak 🇸🇰 🇪🇺 – Official language of Slovakia and the European Union. Recognized minority language in Croatia, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Ukraine.
        • Lecthitic
          • Kashubian – Recognized minority language in Poland
          • Polish 🇵🇱 🇪🇺 – Official language of Poland and the European Union.Recognized minority language in Czechia, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine.
          • Pomeranian – Recognized minority language in Poland
          • Silesian – Recognized regional language of Poland
        • Sorbian
          • Lower Sorbian – endangered minority language in easter Germany
          • Upper Sorbian – Minority language spoken in the Saxony part of Germany
  • Celtic languages
    • Breton – Recognized minority language of the providence of Brittany in France
    • Cornish – Minority language in Cornwall, England
    • Irish 🇮🇪 🇪🇺 – Official language of the Republic of Ireland and the European Union. Recognized minority language of Northern Ireland, UK.
    • Manx 🇮🇲– Official language of the Isle of Man
    • Scottish Gaelic – Recognized minority language of Scotland
    • Welsh 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 🇬🇧 – Official language of Wales
  • Germanic languages
    • Northern Germanic
      • Danish 🇩🇰 🇫🇴 🇪🇺 – Official language of Denmark, Faroe Islands and the European Union. Recognized minority language in Greenland and Germany.
      • Faroese 🇫🇴 – Co-Official language in the Faroe Islands. Recognized minority language in Denmark and Greenland.
      • Icelandic 🇮🇸 – Official language of Iceland.
      • Norwegian 🇳🇴 – Official language of Norway
      • Swedish 🇸🇪 🇫🇮 🇦🇽 🇪🇺 – Official language of Sweden, Finland, Âland Islands and the European Union.
    • Western Germanic
      • Dutch 🇧🇪 🇳🇱 🇪🇺 – Official language in Belgium, the Netherlands and the European Union.
      • English 🇬🇧 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 🇮🇪 🇪🇺 – Official language in the UK, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Malta co-official in Ireland and the European Union. .English is also the second primary language spoken in most European countries.
      • Elfdanian 🇸🇪 – Isolated language spoken by about 3,000 people in Älvdalen,Sweden.
      • Frisian 🇳🇱 🇩🇪 – Regional language spoken by about 500,000 people in the Netherlands and Germany.
      • German 🇩🇪 🇦🇹 🇧🇪 🇱🇮 🇱🇺 🇨🇭 🇪🇺 – Official language of Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and the European Union. German has three main subdivisions divided into multiple dialects.
        • Low German – German spoken in northern Germany with 14 dialects regionally across northern Germany, Belgium and the Nehterlands.
        • Central German – Eleven dialects of German spoken throughout central Germany and Luxembourg
          • Erzgebirgisch – German dialect around Czechia boarder.
          • HessianGerman dialect around Frankfurt.
          • Lorraine-Franconian – German dialect in small area of France on German boarder.
          • Lusatian-Silesian – German dialect along boarder with Poland.
          • Luxembourgish 🇱🇺 – Official language of Luxembourg. Dialect of High German Franconian
          • Moselle-Franconian – German dialect around Koblenz, Trier and Moselle river valley
          • Palatinate-German – German dialect around Kaiserslautern.
          • Ripuarian – German dialect around Cologne.
          • South Marchian – German dialect around Berlin
          • Thuringian – German dialect around Efurt and Eisenach.
          • Upper Saxon – German dialect around Dresden and Leipzig.
        • Upper German with eight dialects spoken regionally.
          • East Franconian – German dialect spoken around Heidelberg and Strasbourg, France areas.
          • South Franconian – German dialect spoken around Nuremberg and Wurzburg.
          • Swabian – German dialect spoken around Stuttgart.
          • Low Alemannic – German dialect spoken in south Germany along Swiss boarder and Liechtenstein.
          • High Alemannic 🇨🇭 – Official language of Switzerland and German dialect used in German speaker Switzerland.
          • Northern-Bavarian – Small German dialect between Nuremberg and Regensburg.
          • Central-Bavarian 🇦🇹 – German dialect of Bavaria spoken in Southeast Germany and Austria. Includes Munich Salzburg and Vienna regions.
          • Southern-Bavarian (Cimbrian) 🇮🇹 – German dialect spoken in Tyrol region of Austria and Italy.
      • Limburgish 🇧🇪 🇩🇪 🇳🇱 – Recognized minority language of the Netherlands. Also spoken in Belgium and Germany.
      • Scots 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 – Minority language spoken in Scotland and Northern Ireland
      • Yiddish – West Germanic language historically spoken by Ashkenazi Jews. Official language in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast of Russia. Recognized minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden and Ukraine.
  • Hellenic languages
    • Greek 🇬🇷 🇨🇾 🇪🇺 – Official language of Greece, Cyprus and the European Union.Four modern dialects are Northern, Ionian-Peloponnesian, Southern and Southeasten.
    • Tsakonian – Form of Greek sparsely spoken in the eastern Peloponnese.
  • Italic (Romance) languages
    • Eastern
      • Romanian 🇷🇴 🇪🇺 – Official language of Romania, Moldova,and the European Union.
      • Aromanian – Recognized minority language of Albania and North Macedonia.
      • Magleno-Romanian – Language spoken in the Moglena region that spans the border between the Greek region of Macedonia and North Macedonia.
      • Istro-Romanian – Recognized minority language of Albania and North Macedonia.
    • Gallo-Romance
      • Gallo-Italic (Cisalpine)
        • Emilian-Romagnol – Language spoken in the Northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna.
        • Ligurian Language spoken the region of Liguria in Northern Italy as well as, France and Monaco.
        • Lombard – Spoken by millions of speakers in Northern Italy and Southern Switzerland,
        • Piedmontese – Recognized minority language in Itlay is spoken by some 2,000,000 people mostly in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy
        • Venetian – Spoken native language by Venetians, by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy
      • Franco-Provençal (Arpitan) Recognized minority language spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland and northwestern Italy.
      • Langue d’oïl – A dialect continuum that includes standard French
        • French 🇫🇷 🇨🇭 🇲🇨 🇪🇺 – Official language of France, Monaco, Switzerland and the European Union.
        • Langue d’oïl French dialects
          • Frankish Zone dialects – Eastern Champenois, Lorrain, Northern Norman and Walloon 🇧🇪 – Official language of Belgium
          • Francien Zone dialects – Berrichon, Bourdonais, Orléanais, Tourangeau , Western Champenois
          • Burgundian Zone dialects – Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois
          • Amorican Zone dialects – Angevin, Gallo, Southern Norman
          • Poitevin-Saintongeais Zone dialects – Poitevin, Saintongeais
      • Occitino-Romance
        • Catalan 🇦🇩 – Official language of Andorra and the communities of the Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia in Spain.
        • Gascon – Official language in Catalonia, Spain. Predominantly spoken in southwest France.
        • Occitan – Official language in Catalonia, Spain. Recognized minority language in Italy, Monaco and 5 regions of France.
      • Rhaeto-Romance
        • Frulian – Official language of the autonomous region of Friuli,Italy.
        • Ladin – Recognized by both provincial and national law in Italy, spoken in the south Tyrol.
        • Romansh 🇨🇭 – Official language in areas of southern Switzerland.
    • West Iberian
      • Astur-Leonese
        • Asturian – Recognized minority language spoken in the Principality of Asturias, Spain
        • Extremaduran – Dialect related to the Asturleonese language, spoken in adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.
        • Leonese – Official language spoken in Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León of Spain.
        • Mirandese – Sparsely spoken and Co-official language in Miranda do Douro, Portugal
      • Castilian
        • Spanish 🇪🇸 🇪🇺 – Official language in Spain and the European Union as well as 20 other countries in Central and South America.
        • Ladino (Judeo-Spanish) – Language derived from Old Spanish. Recognized minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, France, Israel and Turkey
      • Galician-Portuguese
        • Eonavian 🇪🇸
        • Fala 🇪🇸 – Sparsely spoken language by 10,000 peopole in western Spain on Portuguese boarder.
        • Galician 🇪🇸 – Official language in Galicia, an autonomous community in northwestern Spain.
        • Portuguese 🇵🇹 🇪🇺 – Official language of Portugal and the European Union as well as nine countries out of Europe. Recognized minority status in Portuguese communities throughout the wolrd.
      • Pyranean-Mozarabic-Portuguese
        • Aragonese Language spoken by about 12,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain.
    • Italo-Dalamtion
      • Coriscan
      • Istriot
      • ITALIAN 🇮🇹 🇨🇭 🇪🇺 – Official language of Italy, San Marino, southern Switzerland and the European Union. .
      • Neopolitan
      • Sassarese
      • Silician 🇮🇹
      • Tuscan-Corsican
    • Sardinian – Recognized minority language in Italy and Sardinia. Campidanese and Logudorese are the two dialects spoken.
  • Independent
    • Albanian 🇦🇱 🇲🇰 🇲🇪 🇽🇰 – Official language of Albania and co-official in North Macedonia, Montenegro and Kosovo. Recognized minority language of Croatia, Italy, Romania and Serbia.
Non-Indo-European Languages

Language hierarchy are separated into their sub-divisions and dialects. Those in all caps are dominant languages with variant dialects spoken regionally. Click on the arrow(s) to open or close the tree branches.

  • Semitic languages
    • Hebrew - Old language from the Kingdom of Israel and used in religious practices of Judaism.
    • Maltese 🇲🇹 🇽🇰 - Official language of Malta and the European Union.
  • Turkic languages
    • Southwestern Turkic
      • Azerbaijani 🇧🇾 - Official language of Azerbaijan and Dagestan in the Russian Federation.
      • Crimean Tartar 🇷🇺 🇧🇾 - Official language in the Crimean peninsula.
      • Gagauz 🇲🇩 - Official language in Moldova. Recognized minority language in Ukraine.
      • Turkish 🇹🇷 🇨🇾 - Official language in Turkey, Cyprus and Northern Cyprus. Recognized minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, North Macedonia and Romania.
  • Uralic languages
    • Balto-Finnic
      • Estonian (Northern-Standard) 🇪🇪 🇪🇺 - Official language of Estonia and the European Union.
      • Finnish 🇫🇮 🇪🇺 - Official language of Finland and the European Union. recognized minority language in Norway, Sweden and Russia.
      • Karelian - Recognized minority language in Finland and Karelia of Russian Federation.
      • South Estonian - Language spoken in Southeast Estonia around Tartu.
      • Veps - Recognized minority language in Karelia of Russian Federation.
      • Voltic - Language spoken by the Votes of Ingria in Russia.
    • Sami
      • Central Sami 🇩🇰 🇫🇴 🇪🇺 - Official language of Denmark, Faroe Islands and the European Union. Recognized minority language in Greenland and Germany.
      • Eastern Sami 🇫🇴 - Co-Official language in the Faroe Islands. Recognized minority language in Denmark and Greenland.
      • Western Sami - Official language of Iceland.
    • Hungarian 🇭🇺 🇪🇺 - Official language of Hungary anf the European Union. Recognized minority language in Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenian and Ukraine.
  • Independent
    • Basque - Official language of Basque Autonomous Community in Spain.Recognized minority language in France.

Europe is very multi-lingual and in some countries they may have several official languages. In addition they may have other languages that are the official language for that region along with the national language. This accommodates minor ethnic groups who have no country but, whose indigenous people's home has resided within the boundries of another country for many years. This preserves the language by being  taught in schools as well as, used in legal documentation and records.

Language Translating...

Before you leave on your adventure, learn some common phrases for the language of the country you will be visiting. Locals appreciate when you make a little effort to communicate in their native language. Not to worry though, many Europeans speak english well. Other than English, the main languages spoken across many western European boarders are French, Spanish, German and Italian.

In those old eastern block communist countries, Russian has a high recognition. Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian all use the Cryllic alphabet and the Greek alphabet is used in Greece. Unless you can read those alphabets the translator may not be of much help. However, even in those countries major signage can also be labeled with the latin alphabet and sometimes in English.

You can find a language translator apps for your mobile device at one of the app stores or go to Goggle Translate on the internet.

Local Names

Countries and Cities in their language will vary from our pronunciation and spelling. Listed are names with our English version as opposed to the local version.


Albania is Shqipëri
Andorra is Andorre (French)
Austria is Österreich
Belarus is Bielaruś (Беларусь)
Belgium is Belgique ( French)
België (Dutch)
Belgien (German)
Bosnia & Hercegovina is Bosna i Hercegovina
Bulgaria is Bŭlgariya (България)
Croatia is Hrvatska
Cyprus is Κύπρος (Greek)
Czechia is Česko
Denmark is Danmark
Germany is Deutschland (German)
Dútslân (Frisian)
Estonia is Eesti
Finland is Suomi

France is Francia (Corsican)
Greece is Elláda (Ελλάδα)
Hungary is Magyarország
Iceland is Ísland
Ireland is Éireann
Italy is Italia
Latvia is Latvija
Lithuania is Lietuva
Luxembourg is Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourgish)
Montenegro is Crna Gora
Netherlands is Nederland (Dutch)
Nederlân (Frisian)
North Macedonia is Severna Makedonija (Северна Македонија)
Norway is Norge
Poland is Polska
Romania is România

Russia is Rossiya (Россия)
Serbia is Srbija (Србија)
Slovakia is Slovensko
Slovenia is Slovenija
Spain is  España (Spanish)
Espainiako (Basque)
Espanya (Catalan)
Sweden is Sverige
Switzerland is Schwiez (German)
Suisse (French)
Svizzera (Italian)
Turkey is Türkiye
Ukriane is Ukrayiny (Україна)
Scotland is Alba (Gaelic)
Wales is Cymru
Vatican City is Città del Vaticano (Italian)


Alicante is Alacant
Antwerp is Antwerpen
Athens is Athena (Αθήνα)
Auschwitz is Owieçim
Basel is Bâle
Belfast is Béal Feirste
Belgrade is Beograd (београд)
Bruges is Brugge
Brussels is Bruxelles
Bucharest is București
Cardiff is Caerdydd
Cologne is Köln
Copenhagen is København
Corfu is Kérkyra
Corinth is Kórinthos
Cork is Coraigh
Dublin is Baile Ath Cliath
Dunkirk is Dunkerque

Florence is Firenze
Galway is Gaillimh
Geneva is Genéve
Genoa is Genova
Ghent is Gent
Gothenburg is Göteborg
Hanover is Hannover
Heraklion is Iráklio
Killarney is Cill Airnie
Kilkenny is Cill Chainnigh
Kiev is Kyyiv (Київ)
Lisbon is Lisboa
Lucerne is Luzerne
Milan is Milano
Minsk (Мінск)
Moscow is Moskva (Москва)
Munich is München

Naples is Napoli
Nuremberg is Nürnberg
Patras is Pátra
Pilsen is Plzen
Pireaus is Píreás
Prague is Praha
Porto is Oporto
Rome is Roma
St. Petersburg is Sankt-Peterburg (Санкт-Петербург)
Seville is Sevilla
Sofia is Sofiya (София)
The Hague is Den Haag
Turin is Torino
Vienna is Wien
Venice is Venezia
Warsaw is Warszawa
Ypres is leper
Zurich is Zürich

While most religions of the world are practice in Europe most countries have a dominant religion. Events within a country over a period of time have led one religion to become more widely practiced than others. The religions below are categorized by the countries in which they are primarily practiced.
While the reformation started in Germany some areas are still Catholic while the rest are protestant. Switzerland is divided amongst Protestant & Catholic as the primary religion.
On Cyprus the Turkish populated northern area is predominately Islam while the Greek southern area is Eastern Orthodox.

Predominant Religions by Country...

🇧🇾 Belarus
🇧🇬 Bulgaria
🇨🇾 Cyprus
🇲🇰 North Macedonia
🇲🇩 Moldova

🇲🇪 Montenegro
🇷🇴 Romania
🇷🇺 Russia
🇷🇸 Serbia
🇺🇦 Ukraine 


🇦🇱 Albania
🇧🇦 Bosnia Herzegovina

🇹🇷 Turkey 


🇩🇰 Denmark
🇪🇪 Estonia
🇫🇮 Finland
🇮🇸 Iceland
🇳🇱 Netherlands
🇳🇴 Norway

🇸🇪 Sweden
🇬🇧United Kingdom
Northern Ireland
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 Wales 


🇦🇩 Andorra
🇦🇹 Austria
🇧🇪 Belgium
🇭🇷 Croatia
🇨🇿 Czechia
🇫🇷 France
🇭🇺 Hungary
🇮🇪 Ireland
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein

🇱🇺 Luxembourg
🇲🇹 Malta
🇲🇨 Monaco
🇵🇱 Poland,
🇵🇹 Portugal
🇸🇲 San Marino
🇸🇰 Slovakia
🇸🇮 Slovenia
🇪🇸 Spain 

Since the second world war the percentage of those people who do not have any religious affiliation has grown. Communist countries had strict regulations on religions and their churches. In western Europe, the belief in God has declined.  France has the largest percentage of its population with 33% professing no belief in God and Turkey, Malta, Romania and Poland with only 1%. Turkey and Malta also have the highest percentage of believers in God at 95% of their populations and Estonia has the lowest at 16%. However, over 54% of Estonians have a belief in a spirit or force as do over half of European countries. 



Subtitle for Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%, atheist 2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%, other 5.7%, unspecified 16.2%(2011 est.) note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began  allowing private religious practice



Roman Catholic (predominant)



Subtitle Catholic 57%, Eastern Orthodox 8.7%, Muslim 7.9%, Evangelical Christian 3.3%, other/none/unspecified 23.1% (2018 est.) note:  data on Muslim is a 2016 estimate; data on other/none/unspecified are from 2012-2018 estimates



Orthodox 48.3%, Catholic 7.1%, other 3.5%, non-believers 41.1% (2011 est.)



Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant and other Christian 2.5%, Muslim 5%, Jewish 0.4%, Buddhist 0.3%, atheist 9.2%, none 32.6% (2009 est.)


Bosnia &

Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)



Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)



Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)



Orthodox Christian 89.1%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Protestant/Anglican 2%, Muslim 1.8%, Buddhist 1%, other (includes Maronite, Armenian Church, Hindu) 1.4%, unknown 1.1%, none/atheist 0.6% (2011 est.) note: data represent only the government-controlled area of Cyprus



Roman Catholic 10.4%, Protestant (includes Czech Brethren and Hussite) 1.1%, other and unspecified 54%, none 34.5% (2011 est.)



Evangelical Lutheran (official) 74.7%, Muslim 5.5%, other/none/unspecified (denominations of less than 1% each in descending order of size include Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Serbian Orthodox Christian, Jewish, Baptist, Buddhist, Mormon, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Christian) 19.8% (2019 est.)



Orthodox 16.2%, Lutheran 9.9%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7% (2011 est.)



Lutheran 69.8%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2018 est.)



Christian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%, Muslim 7-9%, Buddhist 0.5-0.75%, Jewish 0.5-0.75%, other 0.5-1.0%, none 23-28% (2015 est.) note: France maintains a tradition of secularism and has not officially collected data on religious affiliation since the 1872 national census, which complicates assessments of France's religious composition; an 1872 law prohibiting state authorities from collecting data on individuals' ethnicity or religious beliefs was reaffirmed by a 1978 law emphasizing the prohibition of the collection or exploitation of personal data revealing an individual's race, ethnicity, or political, philosophical, or religious opinions; a 1905 law codified France's separation of church and state



Roman Catholic 27.7%, Protestant 25.5%, Muslim 5.1%, Orthodox 1.9%, other Christian 1.1%, other .9%, none 37.8% (2018 est.)



Greek Orthodox (official) 81-90%, Muslim 2%, other 3%, none 4-15%, unspecified 1% (2015 est.)


Holy See

Roman Catholic



Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, no response 27.2% (2011 est.)



Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland (official) 67.2%, Roman Catholic 3.9%, Reykjavik Free Church 2.8%, Hafnarfjordur Free Church 2%, Asatru Association 1.2%, The Independent Congregation .9%, other religions 4% (includes Zuist and Pentecostal), none 6.7%, other or unspecified 11.3% (2018 est.)



Roman Catholic 78.3%, Church of Ireland 2.7%, other Christian 1.6%, Orthodox 1.3%, Muslim 1.3%, other 2.4%, none 9.8%, unspecified 2.6% (2016 est.)



Christian 83.3% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated 12.4%, other 0.6% (2010 est.)



Lutheran 36.2%, Roman Catholic 19.5%, Orthodox 19.1%, other Christian 1.6%, other 0.1%, unspecified/none 23.5% (2017 est.)



Roman Catholic (official) 73.4%, Protestant Reformed 6.3%, Muslim 5.9%,  Christian Orthodox 1.3%, Lutheran 1.2%, other Protestant .7%, other Christian .3%, other .8%, none 7%, unspecified 3.3% (2015 est.)



Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.)



Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.4%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.5%, none 26.8% (2010 est.)



Roman Catholic (official) more than 90% (2006 est.)



Orthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic (2014 est.)



Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%



Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6%(2011 est.)



Roman Catholic 23.6%, Protestant 14.9% (includes Dutch Reformed 6.4%, Protestant Church of The Netherlands 5.6%, Calvinist 2.9%), Muslim 5.1%, other 5.6% (includes Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish), none 50.7% (2017 est.)



Macedonian Orthodox 64.8%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.4%, other and unspecified 1.5% (2002 est.)



Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 70.6%, Muslim 3.2%, Roman Catholic 3%, other Christian 3.7%, other 2.5%, unspecified 17% (2016 est.)



Catholic 85.9% (includes Roman Catholic 85.6% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 12.1% (2017 est.)



Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3% (2011 est.) note: represents population 15 years of age and older



Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)



Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of official atheism under Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as the country's traditional religions


San Marino

Roman Catholic



Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8% (includes agnostics, other Christians, Eastern, Jewish), undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.) note: most ethnic Albanians boycotted the 2011 census



Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011 est.)



Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 est.)



Roman Catholic 68.9%, atheist 11.3%, agnostic 7.6%, other 2.8%, non-believer 8.2%, unspecified 1.1% (2019 est.)



Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 60.2%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 8.5%, none or unspecified 31.3% (2017 est.) note: estimates reflect registered members of faith communities eligible for state funding (not all religions are state-funded and not all people who identify with a particular religion are registered members); an estimated 57.7% of Sweden's population were members of the Church of Sweden in 2018



Roman Catholic 35.9%, Protestant 23.8%, other Christian 5.9%, Muslim 5.4%, Jewish 0.3%, other 1.4%, none 26%, unspecified 1.4% (2017 est.)



Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)



Orthodox (includes the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU) and the Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish (2013 est.) note: Ukraine's population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority - up to two thirds - identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the OCU and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country's population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population



Christian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none 25.7% (2011 est.)