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About Europe

History

Europe’s history is fascinating with events and people that have changed civilization and the world forever.  While some have move civilization forward for the better, others have caused great destruction and death. Many conflicts arose over the struggles for power, religion, wealth, commerce and logistics. Europe is an immense history book on many subjects. Great civilizations, the arts, religion, war, politics, commerce, sciences & exploration are all a big part of Europe, past and present. The more you understand about what you are looking at when visiting Europe, the more you will come away with an appreciation and comprehension of what you have seen. What role did this place play in history and how did affect us and the time we live in? What were artists trying to convey to us in their paintings and sculptures? What roll did certain buildings or structures perform and why were they built? So many questions can be answered when you have a little background about the places you plan to visit. This is why small tours are helpful when visiting important sites. A good guide can be informative, bring more meaning to your tour.

Listed are events within their time periods, famous Europeans and important eras for architecture, art, music and philosophy. As you visit many sights you’ll be confronted with a lot of the terminology below. Familiarity with the events, people and the eras in which they lived in will provide a greater understanding to what you see and hear on your visit.

Significant Events and Periods in European History…

43,000-40,000 BC – First Cro-Magnons appear in Europe

  • ca.3000 – 2000 BC The construction of Stonehenge
3000 BC – 600 BC Bronze Age in Europe
  • 2700 – 1600 BC – Minoan Civilization
    • 2000 – 1700 BC – Old Palace period
    • 1700 – 1400 BC – New Palace period
    • 1400 – 1200 BC – Post Palatial period
  • 1628 BC – Eruption of Theran (Santorini)
  • 1600 – 1100 BC – Mycenae Civilization
    • 1200 BC – Destruction of Mycenaean Palaces
800 BC – 600 AD Classical Europe Antiquity Age
800 BC – 400 AD Iron Age in Europe
  • 776 BC – First Olympic Games
  • 768 BC – 264 BC Etruscan Civilization
  • 753 BC – Founding of Roman State
  • 510 – 323 BC Classical Greece
  • 509 – 27 BC – Roman Republic & expulsion of Etruscans from Rome
  • 490 – 479 BC Persian Wars
    • 490 BC – Battle of Marathon
  • 431 BC – 404 BC – Peloponnessian War
  • 431 BC – Battle of Syracuse
  • 336 – 323 BC – Alexander the Great’s reign
  • 331 BC – Battle Gaugamela (Arbela)
  • 323 – 31 BC Hellenistic Greece
  • 281 BC – 203 BC 2nd Punic Wars
  • 207 BC – Battle of Mataurus
  • 146 BC – 3rd Punic War, Rome destroys Carthage & conquers Greece
  • 49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon & Civil War
  • 44 BC – Julius Caesar Murdered: End of Roman Republic and beginning of Empire
  • 31 BC – Battle of Actium
  • 27 BC – 476 AD Roman Empire west
  • 9 – Battle of Teutoburg Forest
  • 79 – Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
21 – 700 – Age of Migrations
  • 285 – Dioceltian becomes emperor and splits the Roman Empire into Eastern & Western Empires
  • 313 – Edict of Milan: Constantine accepts Christianity
  • 330 – 1453 Roman Empire East, Constantinople becomes its capitol
  • 410 – Rome sacked by Visigoths
  • 451 – Battle of Chalons
  • 455 – Rome sacked by the Vandals
  • 476 – End of Western Roman Empire
  • 480 – Last Roman Emperor Julius Nepos dies
500-1000 Early Middle (Dark) Ages
  • 500 – 843 Frankish Kingdom
  • 529 – Benedict establishes Benedictine Rule for Monasteries
  • 600 – 1000 Rise of Towns & Commerce
  • 602 – 628 Byzantine-Sasanian War
  • 681 – 1018 1st Bulgarian Empire
  • 697 – 1797 Republic of Venice
  • 793 – 1066 Viking Age
  • 711 – Moors conquest of Visigothic Hispania
  • 718 -1492 Reconquista:
    • 718 Battle of Covadonga / 1236 – Fall of Córdoda / 1248 – Fall of Sevilla / 1492 – Alhambra Decree ends Muslim rule on Iberian peninsula
  • 732 – Charles Martels defeats Muslims at Battle of (Poitiers) Tours
  • 768 – 814 Reign of Charlemagne
  • 910 – Cluny Abbey is founded by William I, Count of Auvergne
  • 929 – 1031 Caliphate of Cordoba
  • 936 – 973 Reign of Otto the Great
  • 962 – 1806 Holy Roman Empire
  • 985 – Eric the Red exiled from Iceland, colonizes Greenland
  • 1000-1301 – Kingdom of Hungary
1000 – 1300 High Middle Ages
  • 1042 – Building of Westminster Abbey starts
  • 1054 – Esat-West Schism between Roman Catholic & Greek Orthodox churches
  • 1060 – 1101 – Norman conquest of Sicily & southern Italy
  • 1066 – Battle of Hastings – Norman conquest of England
  • 1077 – Construction of London Tower begins
  • 1096 – 1300 The Crusades
    • 1096 – 1099 1st Crusade / 1147 – 1149 2nd Crusade / 1189 – 1192 3rd Crusade / 1202 – 1204 4th Crusade / 1217 – 1221 5th Crusade / 1228 – 1229 6th Crusade / 1239 – 1241 Baron’s Crusade / 1270 – 8th Crusade / 1271 – 1272 9th Crusade
  • 1117 – University of Oxford founded
  • 1118 – Knights Templar founded
  • 1185 – 1396 2nd Bulgarian Empire
  • 1200 – University of Paris founded
  • 1204 – Siege of Constantinople
  • 1209 – University of Cambridge founded
  • 1209 – Franciscan Order founded
  • 1215 – Magna Carta signed by John of England
  • 1215 – Dominican Order founded
  • 1237 – Mongol invasions of Eastern Europe
  • 1261 – 1453 Byzantine Empire
  • 1271 – 1292 Marco Polo in China
1300 – 1500 Late Middle Ages
1300-1700 The Renaissance
  • 1305 – Papacy moved to Avignon
  • 1315 – 1317 – The Great Famine
  • 1337 – 1453 – Hundred Years’ War: War between English Plantagenet rulers and French house of Valois
    • 1415 – Battle of Agincourt / 1429 – Joan of Arc’s victory over British at Orleans / 1429 – Battle of Patay / 1431 – Trail & Execution of Joan of Arc
  • 1348 – 1350 Bubonic Plague (Black Death)
  • 1378 – 1417 Great Papal Schism
  • 1382 – John Wycliffe translates Bible into English
  • 1397 – Kalmar Union: Unites Denmark Sweden & Norway
  • 1400 – Canterberry Tales published
  • 1440 – Guttenberg Printing Press
1450-1950 Colonialism & Imperialism
  • 1453 – 1917 Ottoman Empire – Fall of Constantinople to Ottomans, end of Byzantine Empire
  • 1455 – 1487 War of the Roses in England
    • 1455 – Battle of St. Albans / 1485 – Battle of Bowsorth Field / 1487 – Battle of Stoke
  • 1486 – Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope
  • 1492 – Reconquista Ends: Unification of Spain
  • 1492 – 1660 Age of Exploration
  • 1492 – Columbus lands in San Salvador
  • 1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope divides the world outside of Europe between Portugal & Spain
  • 1494 – 1518 The Italian Wars
  • 1497 – 1499 Vasco da Gama reaches India
  • 1499 – France captures Milan
1500‘s
1517-1648 The Reformation
  • 1502 – 1659 Spanish Wars 
  • 1512 – 1559 Franco-Imperial Wars
  • 1517 – Luther posts 95 Theses
  • 1519 – 1522 Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation of the earth
  • 1526 – 1804 Habsburg Monarchy
  • 1529 – 1534 Henry VIII leads Church of England to Angelican
  • 1534 – 1980 French Colonial Empire
  • 1540 – Jesuit Order founded
  • 1545 – 1573 Counter Reformation – Council of Trent
  • 1546 – 1547 Schmalkaldic War: between Holy Roman Empire and Lutheran League
  • 1553 – 1558 Reign of Bloody Mary Tudor
  • 1562 – 1629 French Wars of Religion & Civil Wars
  • 1566 – 1684 Spanish conflict with Dutch
  • 1583 – 1997 British Empire
  • 1588 – Defeat of the Spanish Armada
  • 1598 – Edict of Nantes – Henry IV of France grants rights to Protestants
1600‘s
  • 1609 – Galileo constructs the telescope
  • 1616 – 1648 Thirty Years War
    • 1648 Treaty of Westphalia
  • 1642 – 1651 English Civil War
  • 1649 – 1653 Oliver Cromwell reign in England: after Charles I is executed 1649
  • 1661 – 1789 Age of Absolutism
  • 1666 – The Great London Fire
  • 1688 – The Glorious Revolution – Overthrow of James II by English Parliamentarians
1700’s
  • 1701 – 1713 War of Spanish Succession -ends with Peace of Utrecht 1713
  • 1703 – Peter the Great founds St. Petersburg
  • 1704 – Battle of Blenheim -Preserved Vienna from Franco-Bavarian advance
  • 1709 – Battle of (Plotava) Pultowa – Russia defeats Sweden
  • 1740 – 1748 War of Austrian Succession – ends with Pragmatic Sanction
  • 1740 – 1796 Era of Enlighten Rulers
1760 – 1870 Industrial Revolution
1775 – 1880 Age of Enlightenment
  • 1783 – Montgolfier Brothers fly 1st hot air balloon
  • 1789 – French Revolution
  • 1792 – Battle of Valamy – French stop Prussian invasion
1800’s
  • 1803 – 1815 Napoleonic Wars
    • 1805 – Battle of Austerlitz – Napoleons greatest victory / 1815 – Battle of Waterloo – Napoleons final defeat
  • 1821 – 1832 Greek War of Independence from Ottomans
  • 1833 – Slavery Abloshed in British Empire
  • 1845 – 1849 The Great Famine Ireland
  • 1848 – Revolutions of 1848
  • 1848 – 1871 Unification of Germany
  • 1848 – Marx publishes Communist Manifesto
  • 1851 – The Great Exhibition in London
  • 1853 – 1856 Crimean War
  • 1858 – Transatlantic Cable
  • 1859 – Darwin’s Theory of Evolution published
  • 1863 – London Underground opens
  • 1866 – Austro-Prussian War
  • 1870 – 1871 Franco Prussian War
  • 1871 – Unification of Italy
  • 1877 – 1878 Russo-Turkish War
  • 1888 – Jack the Ripper murders in London
  • 1889 – Eiffel Tower inaugurated in Paris
  • 1896 – First Modern Olympic Games are held in Athens
1900’s
  • 1901 – First Nobel prizes awarded
  • 1903 – First Tour de France is held
  • 1912 – RMS Titanic Disaster
  • 1914 – 1919 World War I
    • 6/28/1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand / Aug. 1914 – Nov. 1918 War on the Western Front / Aug. 1914 – Mar. 1918 War on the Eastern Front / 1915 – RMS Lusitania Torpedoed / Feb. 1915- Jan. 1916 Gallipoli Campaign / Oct. 1914 – Oct. 1918 Middle Eastern Campaign / 11/11/1918 Germany signs the Armistice of Compiègne / Jan. – July 1919 Treaty of Versailles
  • 1917 – Russian Revolution – End of Tsarist rule in Russia
  • 1929 – 1939 Great Depression
  • 1929 – 1937 Soviet Deportations & Collectivizations
  • 1932 – 1933 Holodomor Famine in the Soviet Union
  • 1933 – Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
  • 1936 – 1939 Spanish Civil War
  • 1937 – 1939 The Great Purge in the Soviet Union
  • 1939 – 1945 World War II
    • Sep. 1939 Germany invades Poland / Apr.1940 Germany invades Denmark & Norway / May 1940 Germany attacks France, Belgium, Netherlands & Luxembourg / May-June 1940 Dunkirk / Jun.14,1940 Germany occupies Paris / Jun.22,1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union / Sep.1941-Jan.1944 Siege of Leningrad / 1941 Pearl Harbor / Aug.1942 – Feb.1943 Battle of Stalingrad / Jun.6 1944 D-Day / Dec.1944-Jan.1945 Battle of the Bulge / 1945 Atomic bomb of Hiroshima & Nagasaki / May 8,1945 Germany surrenders / Nov.1945 – Oct.1946 Nuremberg Tribunal
  • 1939 – 1945 The Holocaust
  • 1947 – 1989 Cold War
  • 1948 – 1949 Berlin Blockade
  • 1949 – Formation of NATO
  • 1957 – USSR launched Sputnik into space
  • 1961 – Construction of the Berlin Wall
  • 1985 – Schengen Agreement
  • 1986 – Chernobyl Disaster
  • 1989 – Fall of the Berlin Wall
  • 1990 – German Reunification
  • 1991 – Soviet Union Offically Ceased
  • 1993 – European Union – Maastricht Treaty
2000’s
  • 2002 – Adoption of the Euro
  • 2016 – The United Kingdom votes to exit the European Union
Culture Eras…

The timelines below reflect the eras in which civilizations has an influence over the development of architecture, art, sculpture, cuisine, design, clothing and the overall norms and lifestyles of their society.

Culture Period Timeline…
  • 30000 BCE Paleolithic Art
  • 4000 BCE Neolithic Period
  • 3000 BCE – 1200 BCE Prehistoric Aegean – Helladic (mainland Greece), Minoan (Crete), Cycladic (Cyclades)
    • 3000 BCE – 2000 BCE Early Helladic, Early Minoan, Early Cycladic
    • 2000 BCE – 1700 BCE Middle Helladic, Middle Minoan, Middle Cycladic
    • 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE Late Helladic-Mycenaean, Late Minoan, Late Cycladic
    • 1200 BCE – 1000 BCE Sub Mycenaean, Sub Minoan
  • 8th Century BCE – 393 CE Classical Period
    • 900 BCE – 700 BCE Villanovan Greece
    • 700 BCE – 600 BCE Orientalizing Greece
    • 600 BCE – 480 BCE Archaic Greece
    • 509 BCE – 27 BCE Early Rome Republic
    • 480 BCE – 323 BCE Classical Greece
      • 480 – 450 Early Classical
      • 450 – 400 High Classical
      • 400 – 323 Late Classical
    • 323 BCE – 89 BCE Hellenistic Greece
    • 27 BCE – 96 CE Early Roman Empire
    • 96 – 192 High Roman Empire
    • 192 – 337 Late Roman Empire
  • 330 – 1453 Byzantine
    • 527 – 726 Early Byzantine
    • 726 – 843 Iconoclasm
    • 843 – 1204 Middle Byzantine
    • 1204 – 1453 Late Byzantine
  • 476 – 1024 Early France & Germany
    • 476 – 751 Merovingian
    • 751 – 936 Carolingian
    • 936 – 1024 Ottonian
  • 476 – 1050 Hibernio-Saxon Period in British Isles & Viking Period in Scandinavia
  • 963 – 1120 Romanesque
  • 1140 – 1500 Gothic
    • 1140 – 1194 Early Gothic
    • 1194 – 1300 High Gothic
    • 1300 – 1500 Late Gothic
  • 1401 – 1490 Early Renaissance
  • 1430 – 1580 Northern Renaissance
  • 1490 – 1527 High Renaissance
  • 1520 – 1620 Mannerism
  • 1584 – 1723 Baroque
  • 1600 – 1672 Dutch Golden Age
  • 1702 – 1780 Rococo
  • 1780 – 1830 Romanticism
  • 1840 – 1880 Realism
  • 1872 – 1892 Impressionism
  • 1880 – 1910 Symbolism
  • 1880 – 1914 Post-Impressionism
  • 1890 – 1905 Art Nouveau
  • 1900 – 1945 Art Deco
  • 1899 – 1908 Fauvism
  • 1905 – 1933 Expressionism
  • 1907 – 1922 Cubist
  • 1916 – 1924 Dada
  • 1915 – 1930 Constructivism
  • 1919 – 1933 Bauhaus
  • 1924 – 1966 Surrealism
Music Period Timeline
  • before 500 Ancient
  • 800 -1400 Middle Ages
    • 800 – 1000 Early Medieval
    • 900 – 1300 Polyphony
    • 1100 – 1300 Secular
    • 1300 – 1400 Late Medieval
  • 1400 – 1600 Renaissance
  • 1600 – 1750 Baroque
  • 1750 – 1825 Classical
  • 1825 – 1920 Romantic 
  • 1920 – 2000 Modern Music
Philosophy Period Timeline…
  • Pre-Socratic 624 – 379 BCE
  • Ancient 370 – 43 BCE
  • Medieval 400-1400
  • Renaissance 1350-1650
  • Modern 1600- 1925
  • Contemporary 1875- 
Rise & Fall of European Empires, Kingdoms & States…

The lists below itemizes those empires, kingdoms, duchies, states or principalities that would control their own sovereignty. The second lists are those who were either a vassal or state of another empire or kingdom. They would be obligated to the superior state or empire. Some empires can still exist today because they occupy or have administrative power over foreign countries or territories.

Time Period Span – Name of State – Area of Origin – Capital
  • 334 – 323 BC     Macedonian Empire – Macedonia – Pella
  • 27 BC – 1453     Roman Empire – Italy – Rome, Constantinople
  • 250 – 950     Frankish Empire – Western Europe – Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen
  • 260 – 272     Gallic Empire – Rhineland-Palatinate – Colonia Aprippina (cologne), Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
  • 286 – 296     Britannic Empire – Britain – Londinium
  • 370 – 469     Hunnic Empire – Central Europe – Pliska, Preslav, Skopie, Ohrid & Bitola
  • 395 – 1453     Byzantine Empire – Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria, Italy – Constantinople
  • 395 – 476     Western Roman Empire – Italy – Mediolanum, Ravenna
  • 418 – 721     Visigothic Kingdom – Spain, France – Toulouse, Narbonne, Barcelona, Toledo
  • 475 – 553     Ostrogothic Kingdom – Italy, Croatia, Slovenia – Ravenna
  • 681 – 1018     1st Bulgarian Empire – Balkans – 
  • 697 – 1797     Venice, Republic – NE Italy, Croatia, Greece, Cyprus – Venice 
  • 754 – 1870     Papal States – Italy – Rome 
  • 756 – 1031     Caliphate of Córdoba – Iberian Peninsula – Córdoba
  • 824 – 1841    Navarre – Northeast Spain – Pamplona
  • 833 – 900     Great Moravian Empire – Central Europe – Mikulčice-Valy 
  • 843 – 1482     Scotland, Kingdom – Northern Isle of Britain – Edinburgh
  • 962 – 1806     Holy Roman Empire – Central Europe – Vienna, Regensburg, Wetzlar
  • 1000 – 1946    Hungary, Kingdom – Hungary, Romania, Balkans – Esztergom, Temesvár, Visegrád, Budapest
  • 1005 – 1797    Genoa, Republic – NW Italy, Genoa
  • 1016 – 1035     North Sea Empire – Denmark – Copenhagen
  • 1025 – 1569     Poland, Kingdom – Poland – Gniezno, Poznań, Płock, Kraków
  • 1035 – 1707     Aragon, Kingdom – Iberian Peninsula – Jaca, Huesca, Zaragoza
  • 1065 – 1230     Castile, Kingdom – Central Iberian peninsula – no capital
  • 1115 – 1532     Florence, Republic – Tuscany, Italy – Florence
  • 1121 – 1269     Almohad Caliphate – Morocco – Marrakech, Seville
  • 1154 – 1242     Angevin Empire – England, France – Angers, Chinon
  • 1185 – 1422     2nd Bulgarian Empire – Balkans – Pliska, Preslav, Skopie & Ohrid
  • 1204 – 1261     Latin Empire – Thrace Asia Minor – Constantinople
  • 1226 – 1525    Tuetonic, State – Poland, Baltic states –  Marienburg, Konigsberg
  • 1229 – 1922     Ottoman Empire – Anatolia – Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul
  • 1238 – 1547     Moscow, Grand Duchy – Russia – Moscow
  • 1251 – 1263     Lithuania, Kingdom – Lithuania – Kernavé
  • 1282 – 1816     Naples, Kingdom -Southern Italy – Naples
  • 1330 – 1859     Wallachia, Principality – Romania – Câmpulung, Curtea de Argeș, Târgoviște, Bucharest
  • 1346 – 1371     Serbian Empire – Balkans – Skopje, Prizren
  • 1346 – 1859     Moldavian, Principality – Moldavia, Romania – Baia, Siret, Suceava, Iași 
  • 1397 – 1523    Kalmar Union – Demark, Sweden, Norway, Iceland – Roskilde, Copenhagen
  • 1402 – 1975     Spanish Empire – Iberian Peninsula – Madrid
  • 1415 – 1999     Portugueses Empire   Portugal 
  • 1525 – 1947    Prussia, Kingdom, Duchy – Germany, Poland, Baltic States – Konigsberg, Berlin
  • 1534 -present  French Colonial Empire – France – Paris
  • 1536 – 1953     Danish Colonial Empire – Denmark – Copenhagen
  • 1568 – 1975     Dutch Empire – Netherlands – Amsterdam
  • 1569 – 1795    Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine – Kraków, Warsaw 
  • 1580 – 1997     British Empire –  England – London
  • 1611 – 1721     Swedish Empire – Sweden – Stockholm
  • 1712 – 1917     Russian Empire – Russia – St. Petersburg
  • 1804 – 1815     1st French Empire – France – Paris
  • 1804 – 1867     Austrian Empire – Austria – Vienna
  • 1852 – 1870     2nd French Empire – France – Paris
  • 1867 – 1918     Austria-Hungary – Austria, Hungary – Vienna, Budapest
  • 1871 – 1918     German Empire – Germany – Berlin
  • 1881 – 1947     Romania, Kingdom – Romania – Bucharest, Iași 
  • 1885 – 1943     Italian Empire – Italy – Rome
  • 1910 – 1962    Belgian Colonial Empire – Belgium – Brussels
  • 1922 – 1991 Soviet Union – Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia.
  • 1922 – 1937     Irish Free State – Ireland – Dublin
  • 1933 – 1945     Third Reich – Germany – Berlin
Vassals or States under a high power…
  • 804 – 1296    Saxony, Duchy – Germany – Duchy of Carolingian Empire & state of Holy Roman Empire
  • 918 – 1482     Burgundy, Duchy – France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy – Dijon 
  • 1198 – 1918     Bohemia, Kingdom – Czechia, Germany, Poland – Prague – Vassal of the Holy Roman Empire, Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire 
  • 1224 – 1246     Empire of Thessalonica – Epirus, Thessaloniki – Thessaloniki – Vassal of the 2nd Bulgarian Empire
  • 1395 – 1796     Milan, Duchy – Northern Italy – Milan – Vassal of the Holy Roman Empire