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Castles – Fortifications

For centuries Europe lived under the rule of Emperors, Kings, Nobles and Lords whose power dominated the people within their fiefdoms and sphere of influence. After the fall of the Roman Empire much of Europe was ruled by hundreds of small and sometimes isolated kingdoms. Each one had a King or ruler who ruled over the lower class of peasants, serfs and even slaves. These rulers led a life of power which they gave them wealth and security over their common subjects.  They held title to all the land within their realm and power over all who lived within the realm. To protect their power of rule they secured themselves behind the walls of castles and fortifications, strategically built to defend themselves against invaders and waring adversaries. Later many of these realms would come under the rule of other entities or kingdoms and with that came security. As cities and towns were built around these castles the walls would be expanded to encompass much of the city. Eventually many would come down and the upper class would build themselves palaces in which to carry on their rule and lifestyles of excess.There are literally hundreds upon hundreds of these castles, citadels and forts to view and visit all across Europe today. Some are in ruin hardly distinguishable, others well preserved and some rebuilt or restored. A visit to anyone of these castles is to truly go back in time. Sometimes there is a miss-use when using the word castle, palaces, fortress, château, citadel, etc. To eleviate any confusion here are the definitions.

There are literally hundreds upon hundreds of these castles and châteauxs to view and visit all across Europe today. Some are in ruin hardly distinguishable, others well preserved and some rebuilt or restored. A visit to anyone of these structures is to truly go back in time.

When European exploration started to colonize around the world it elevated the influence and power of Spain, Portugal, England, France and the Netherlands. This gave them extra wealth and economic power over the rest of Europe. Then other countries like Austria-Hungary, Russia, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) would consolidate their power to compete with the others. Lastly, Italy and Germany would unified to compete with the power countries.

From their colonies resources they amassed minerals, furs, gems, foods and slavery. Also with a consolidation of power, ruling families became more wealthy than ever. With this wealth they would build huge Palaces to flaunt their wealth and power. Palaces in most situations are always the residence of royalty.

Today one can visit many of these as well, as many have been preserved and restored. You will find a display of wealth and excess with luxurious buildings, expensively furnished and decorated as well as vast and beautifully manicured gardens that are still kept pristine.

 ALBANIA

Fortifications
Baleč
Dagnum

 AUSTRIA

Castles

Fortifications
Fortress Hohensalzburg
Finstermünz Fortress

 BELARUS

Castles
Nesvizh Castle – Nesvizh

Fortifications
Babruysk fortress
Brest fortress

 BELGIUM

Castles
Walzin Castle – Dinant

Fortifications
Antwerp Providence
Fort de Stabroeck
Redoute de Berendrecht
Redoute de Capellen
Fort de Brasschaet
Fort de Schooten
Redoute de Schilde
Fort de Lierre
Forte de Wavre-Sainte-Catherine
Fort de Breendonck
Fort de Liezele
Redoute de Puers
Fort de Bornhem
Fort de Steendorp
Redoute d’Oorderen
Fort de Zwyndrecht

Liège Providence
Fort de Barchon
Fort d’Évegnée
Fort de Fléron
Fort de Chaudfontaine
Fort d’Embourg
Fort de Boncelles
Fort de Flémalle
Fort de Hollogne
Fort de Loncin
Fort de Lantin
Fort de Liers
Fort de Pontise
Fort de la Chartreuse
Citadelle of Liège
Fort d’Eben-Emael
Fort d’Aubin-Neufchâteau
Fort de Battice
Fort de Tancrémont

Namur Providence
Fort de Maizeret
Fort d’Andoy
Fort de Dave
Fort de Malonne
Fort de Suarlée
Fort de Cognelée
Fort de Marchovelett  

 BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA

Borač (fortress)
Blagaj Fort
Bobovac
Bužim Fort
Citadel Počitelj
Fortress of Doboj
Fazlagić Tower
Glamoč Fortress
Hodidjed
Kastel Fortress
Komotin Fort
Maglaj Fortress
Pavlovac (fortress)
Srebrenik Fortress
Vidoski
Visočica hill
Walled city of JajceZvornik Fortress 

 BULGARIA

Fortifications
Markeli
Asen’s Fortress
Belogradchik Fortress (Kaleto)

 CROATIA

Castles
Veliki Tabor – Desinić

Fortifications
Brod Fortress
Dinarić Fortress
Knin Fortress
Lovrijenac
Mirabella Fortress (Peovica)
Monkodonja
Nečven
Nehaj Fortress
NesactiumPrevlaka Fortress
Prozor Fortress
Sisak Fortress
St. Michael’s Fortress, Šibenik
Starigrad Fortress (Fortica)
Tvrđa

 CYPRUS

Castles
Kyrenia Castle – Girne

Fortifications
Walls of Nicosia
Famagusta Gate
Kyrenia Gate 

 CZECHIA

Castles
State Castle – Cesky Krumlov
Karlstejn Castle – Prague
Prague Castle –  Prague

Fortifications
Josefov Fortress
Roman fort, Mušov
Stachelberg
Terezín
Vitrified fort  

 DENMARK

Castles
Kronborg Castle – Helsingør
Frederiksborg Castle – Hillerode
Rosenborg Castle –  Copenhagen

Fortifications
Flakfortet
Middelgrundsfortet
Trekroner Fort 

 ESTONIA

Fortifications
Toomemägi
Toompea
Varbola Stronghold
Peter the Great’s Naval Fortress
– Aegna
– Kakumäe
– Naissaar
– Suurupi
– Viimsi

 FINLAND

Fortifications
Fortress of Suomenlinnea

 FRANCE

Castles
Guedelon Castle – Treigny

Fortifications
Group Fortifications of Aisne
Fort des Ayvelles
Bastille (Grenoble)
Petit Bé
Fort of Beauregard (Besançon)
Fort de Bellegarde
Fort de Bertheaume
Citadel of Besançon
Fort des Bordes
Fort de Bourlémont
Fort Boyard (fortification)
Fort of Bregille
Fort de Bron
Fort de Caluire
Fort Carré
Citadel of Lille
Fort de Condé-sur-Aisne
Fort de la Crèche
Fort Decaen
Fort Déroulède
Fort Douaumont
Fort Dubois
Fort Duchère
Fort des Dunes
Fort l’Écluse
Fort Enet
Fort de Feyzin
Fort de Brégançon
Fort de la Conchée
Fort de La Prée
Fort de Mutzig
Fort du Portalet
Fort Fleur d’épée
Fort Liberia
Fort Mahon
Fort National
Fort of Justices
Fort of Rosemont
Fort Rapp
Fort Risban
Fort Saint-Elme (France)
Forts of Metz
Group Fortifications Francois-de-Guise
Führer Headquarters
Fort Gambetta
Heurt Fort
Fort de Joux
Fort Lauvallieres
Group Fortification Lorraine
Fort Louvois
Fort de Loyasse
Lunettes of Trois-Châtels and Tousey
Group Fortification Marne
Meuse-Line
Fort du Mont Verdun
Fort Montbarey
Moselle-Line
Fort Ney (Fransecky)
Fort of Planoise
Questel Fort
Fort Saint-Jean (Marseille)
Fort Saint-Jean (Lyon)
Fort de Saint-Julien
Fort Saint-Privat
Fortifications of Saint-Quentin
Fort de Salses
Fort de Seclin
Tour Royale, Toulon
Fort de Tournoux
Fort de Vancia
Fort Vaux
Group Fortification Verdun
Fort de Viraysse
Vitrified fort
Lines of Weissenburg
Group Fortification Yser

 GERMANY

Castles
Castles and Gardens of Germany
Altenburg Castle, Altenburg
Ansbach Castle, Ansbach
Bruchsal Castle – Bruchsal
New Castle, Bayreuth
Stadtschloss,  – Berlin
Hohenzollern Castle – Bisingen
Royal Castle of Herrenchiemsee – Chiemsee
Schloss Benrath, Düsseldorf
Wartburg Castle –  Eisenbach
Neuschwanstein Castle – Füssen
Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha
Güstrow Castle
Heidelberg Castle –  Heidelberg
Schloss Bothmer – Klütz
Schloss Ludwigslust – Ludwigslust
Fortress – Marienberg
Schloss Elisabethenburg, Meiningen
Burg Meersburg – Meersburg
Neues Schloss – Meersburg
Castle Frankenstein – Mühltal
Schloss Neustrelitz – Neustrelitz
Schwetzingen Castle – Schwetzingen
Sigmaringen Castle – Sigmaringen
Scherwin Castle – Scherwin
Old Castle – Stuttgart
New Castle – Stuttgart
Castle Solitude – Stuttgart
Eltz Castle – Wierschem

Fortifications
Ayers Kaserne
Wildenstein Castle (Leibertingen)
Ehrenbreitstein Fortress -Koblenz
Grauerort fortress – Stade
Königstein Fortress – Königstein
Moritzburg Fortress – Moritzburg
Petersberg Citadel – Erfurt
Saalburg – Bad Homburg
Spandau Citadel – Berlin
Fortress of Ulm – Ulm
Veste Coburg – Coburg
Veste Oberhaus – Passau
Mainz Citadel  – Mainz

 GREECE

Castles
Methoni Castle – Methoni

Fortifications
Palamidi
New Fortress of Corfu
Firka Fortress
Fortress of Pantokrator
Mystras
Monemvasia  

 HUNGARY

Castles
Buda Castle –  Budapest
Castle of Eger –  Eger
Godollo Castle – Godollo

Fortifications
Fuzer Fortress

 ICELAND

Fortifications
Borgarvirki Fortress

 IRELAND

Castles
Blarney Castle – Cork
Malahide Castle – Dublin
Kilkenny Castle –  Kilkenny
Ashford Castle – Mayo

Fortifications
Charles Fort

 ITALY

Castles
Treuenstein Castle –  Bolzano
Rocca Calasico – Clasico
Castello di Brolio – Chianti
Castello di Meleto – Chianti
Castello Estense –  Ferrara
Sforza Castle –  Milan
Castle of Moncalieri – Moncalieri
Castel Sant Angelo – Rome
Buonconsiglio Castle –  Trento
Miramare Castle –  Trieste
Castelvecchio –  Verona

Fortifications
Forte Spagnolo, L’Aquila
Fort Bard, Bard
Forte a Mare, Brindisi
Walls of Genoa
Fortress of Orsini
Priamar Fortress, Savona
Fortress of San Leo, Marche
BelvedereFlorence 

 LATVIA

Fortifications
Daugavpils Fortress (Dinaburg)

 LITHUANIA

Castles
Trakai Castle – Trakai

Fortifications
Apuolė
Aukštupėnai mound
Karmazinai mound
Kernavė
Molavėnai
Napoleon’s Hill
Pilėnai
Ukmergė
Seventh Fort
Ninth Fort
Voruta

 LUXEMBOURG

Castles
Vianden – Vianden

Fortifications
Boch Cassments
Boch Promontory
Chemin de la Corniche
Fort Thüngen
Hollow Tooth
Holy Ghost Citadel
Lambert Redoubt
Petrusse Casements
Spanish Turret
Trois Tours  

 MALTA

 NETHERLANDS

Fortifications
Fort Nassau
Fort Bourtange
Fort Pampus
Fort de Roovere
Wierickerschans
Fort along Den Ham
Fort near De Kwakel
Muiden Fortress
Fort Vijfhuizen
Vuurtoreneiland 

 NORWAY

Fortifications
Akershus Fortress in Oslo
Audunborg in Jølster
Bergenhus Fortress in Bergen
Båhus Fortress
Hamarhus Castle in Hamar
Isegran in Fredrikstad
Steinvikholm Castle in Stjørdal
Sverresborg Castle in Trondheim
Sverresborg Castle in Bergen
Tønsberg Fortress
Vardøhus Fortress
Fredriksberg fortress
Fredriksholm Fortress (Kristiansand)
Fredrikstad Fortress
Fredriksten Fortress
Fredriksværn
Kongsvinger Fortress
Basmo Fortress
Blaker Fortress
Christiansfjell Fortress (Elverum)
Munkholmen Fortress (Trondheim)
Staverns Fortress
Christiansholm Fortress (Kristiansand)
Christiansø Fortress
Kristiansten Fortress (Trondheim)
Altenhus Fortress (Alta)
Hegra Fortress
Kvarven Fort
Odderøya Fortress
Oscarsborg Fortress
Trondenes Fort
Meløyvær Fortress
Møvik Fortress  

 POLAND

Fortifications
Kłodzko Fortress
Kraków Fortress
Międzyrzecz Fortification Region
Modlin Fortress
Osowiec
Poznań Fortress
Toruń Fortress
Warsaw Fortress

 PORTUGAL

Castles
Castle of Saint George – Lisbon

Fortifications
Belém Tower, Lisbon
Fort of Guincho, Cascais
Fort of Leça de Palmeira, Porto
Castelo da Póvoa, Póvoa de Varzim
Fort of São Sebastião de Caparica, Almada
Fort of Nossa Senhora da Encarnação, Lagoa
Fort of Nossa Senhora da Rocha, Lagoa
Fort of Pessegueiro Island, Sines
Fort of Santa Catarina, Portimão
Fort of São João Baptista, Peniche
Fort of São João do Arade, Lagoa
Fort of São Pedro do Estoril, Cascais
Fort of São João Baptista, Angra do Heroísmo
Fort of Greta, Horta
Fort of Negrito, Angra do Heroísmo
Valença Fortress, Valença  

 ROMANIA

Castles
Bran Castle – Brașov
Corvin Castle – Hunedoara
Peles Castle –  Sinaia

 RUSSIA

Fortifications
Alexandrov Kremlin
Astrakhan Kremlin
Fort Alexander (St. Petersburg)
Gdov Kremlin
Ivangorod fortress
Kazan Kremlin
Kolomna Kremlin
Kronstadt
Moscow Kremlin
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
Novgorod Kremlin
Peter and Paul Fortress, Saint Petersburg
Por-Bazhyn, Tuva Republic
Tobolsk Kremlin
Tula Kremlin

 SAN MARINO

Rocca Della Guaita – Città di San Marino

 SERBIA

 SLOVAKIA

Castles
Orava Castle –  Oravský
Spiš Castle – Žehra
Bojnice Castle –  Bojnice

 SLOVENIA

Castles
Predjama Castle – Predjama
Friezing Bishops Castle –  Škofja

 SPAIN

Castles
Alcázar de Segovia Castle – Segovia
Castillo de Coca –  Coca

Fortifications
Muralla de Santiago de Compostela
Fort Chinchilla
Fort Jerez de los Caballeros
Fort Cartagena
Batería de Aspiroz
Muelle de Gallineras
Fuerte de Punta Carnero
Fuerte de San García
Batería de San Genís
Fort San Marcos
Batería de San Melitón de la Calavera
Fort Sancti Petri (San Fernando)
Batería de Urrutia
Fort Peníscola
Fort Molina de Aragón
Fort Coria
Fort Sant Ferran (Figueres)
Fort Cartaya
Fort Niebla
Fort Cortegana
Muralla urbana de Marbella
Fort San Felipe
Fort Caravaca de la Cruz
Fort Olite
Fort San Cristóbal
Fort Bellver
Alcázar of Segovia
Fort Berlanga de Duero
Fort Toledo
Fort Encinas de Esgueva
Fort Peñafiel
Fort Simancas
Fort Villalba de los Alcores
Aljaferia

 SWEDEN

Fortifications
Bodens fästning
Carlsten
Bohus Fästning
Karlsborg Fortress 

 SWITZERLAND

Castles
Aigle Castle – Aigle
Aarburg Castle – Aarburg
Bottmingen Castle – Bottmingen
Castles of Bellinzona – Bellinzona
Habsburg Castle – Habsburg
Lenzburg Castle – Lenzburg
Vufflens Castle – Vufflens
Aile Castle – Vevey
Chillon Castle – Veytaux
Grynau Castle – Tuggen
Schadau Castle – Thun
Tarasp Castle – Tarasp

Fortifications
Fort de Champillon
Fort de Chillon
Mueterschwanderberg 

 TURKEY

Fortifications
Anadoluhisarı
Casemates of İbrahim Pasha
Diyarbakır Fortress
Rumelihisarı
Yedikule Fortress 

 UKRAINE

Castles
Akkerman Fortress in Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Odessa Oblast
Dubno Castle in Dubno, Rivne Oblast
The Genoese fortress in Sudak, Crimea
Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle in Kamianets-Podilskyi, Khmelnytsky Oblast
Khotyn Fortress in Khotyn, Chernivtsi Oblast
Kyiv Fortress in Kyiv, Kyiv Oblast
Lviv High Castle in Lviv, Lviv Oblast
Lutsk Castle in Lutsk, Volyn Oblast
Medzhybizh Castle in Medzhybizh
Olesko Castle, about 75 km from Lviv, Lviv Oblast
Radomysl Castle – Zhytomyrs’ka
Palanok Castle in Mukacheve, Zakarpattia Oblast
Pidhirtsi Castle – Lviv
Svirzh Castle in Svirzh, Lviv Oblast

Fortifications
Arabat Fortress
Borysohlibska Fortress
Charax, Crimea
Chufut-Kale
Kerch (fortress)
Khadjibey
Khortytsia
Khotyn Fortress
Kiev Fortress
Kodak Fortress
Letychiv Fortress
Lysa Hora (Kiev)
Medzhybizh Fortress
Okopy, Ternopil Oblast
Ukrainian line
Yeni-Kale

 UNITED KINGDOM

 England

Castles
Alnwick Castle –  Alnwick
Bamburg Castle –  Bamburg
Canterbury Castle – Canterbury
Carlisle Castle –  Carlisle
Dunstanburgh Castle –  Craster
Dover Castle –  Dover
Durham Castle –  Durham
Lindisfarne Castle –  Holly Island
Lincoln Castle –  Lincoln
Tower of London –  London
Ludlow Castle –  Ludlow
Leeds Castle –  Maidstone
Belvoir Castle – Melton
Pontefract Castle – Pontefract
Bodiam Castle –  Robertsbridge
Rochester Castle –  Rochester
Tamworth Castle –  Tamworth
Warkworth Castle –  Warkworth
Warwick Castle –  Warwick
Windsor Castle –  Windsor
Clifford’s Tower York Castle –  York

Fortifications
Maunsell Sea Forts
Dymchurch Redoubt
Eastbourne Redoubt
Fort Burgoyne
Admiralty Pier Turret
Dover Western Heights
Littlehampton Redoubt
Newhaven Fort
Saxon Shore Forts
Shoreham Redoubt
Coalhouse Fort
Cliffe Fort
New Tavern Fort
Shornmead Fort
Slough Fort
Tilbury Fort
Fort Horsted
Fort Amherst
Fort Borstal
Fort Bridgewood
Fort Clarence
Fort Darnet
Fort Luton
Fort Hoo
Fort Pitt
Garrison Point Fort
Grain Fort & Grain Tower Battery
Crookhorn Redoubt
Fort Fareham
Farlington Redoubt
Fort Nelson
Fort Southwick
Fort Purbrook
Fort Wallington
Fort Widley
Fort Blockhouse
Fort Brockhurst
Fort Elson
Fort Gilkicker
Fort Grange
Fort Monckton
Fort Rowner
Fort Cumberland
Lumps Fort
Horse Sand Fort
No Mans Land Fort
Spitbank Fort
St Helens Fort
Liscard Battery
Fort Perchrock
Bath Side Battery
Beacon Hill Battery
Harwich Redoubt
Landguard Fort
Shotley Battery
Weymouth
Nothe Fort
Chudleigh Fort
Berry Head
Bristol Channel
Brean Down Fort
Bayard’s Cove Fort
Royal Citadel
Agaton Fort
Breakwater Fort
Cawsand Fort
Crownhill Fort
Ernesettle Fort
Fort Bovisand
Picklecombe Fort
Polhawn Fort
Fort Scraesdon
Fort Tregantle
Whitesand Bay Battery
Woodlands Fort
Verne Citadel
East Weare Battery
High Angle Battery
Blacknor Fort  
The Humber Forts
Fort Paull
The Tyne Turrets 

Northern Ireland

Fortifications
Ballygalley –  Ballygalley

 Scotland

Fortifications
Bennachie
Tap o’ Noth
White Caterthun and Brown Caterthun
An Caisteal, Coll
Dùn Cholla, Colonsay
Dùn Dubh, Coll
Dùn Eibhinn, Colonsay
Dùn Meadhonach, Colonsay
Dùn Morbhaidh, Coll
Dunadd
Dun Skeig, Kintyre
Castle Law, Dumyat
Doon of May
Grennan Hill
Tynron Doon 
Black Castle
Blackcastle Hill
Chesters Hill Fort 
Traprain Law
White Castle
Arthur’s Seat
Blackford Hill
Clatchard Craig
Norman’s Law
Dunearn
Dun Evan
Dun Ringill
Craig Phadrig, Inverness 
Castle Law
Cluny Hill
Doune of Relugas
Knock of Alves
Moredun Top hill fort, Moncreiffe Hill
Edin’s Hall Broch
Eildon Hill
Peniel Heugh
Black Hill 
Dumyat
Gillies Hill
Dumbarton Rock
Bowden hill fort
Peace Knowe hill fort
Castlethorn hill fort
Cockleroy hill fort
Dùn Èistean

 Wales

Castles
Caernarfon Castle – Caernarfon
Cardiff Castle –  Cardiff
Conwy Castle –  Conwy
Eilean Donan – Dornie
Harlech Castle –  Harlech
Culzean Castle – Maybole
Pembroke Castle –  Pembroke
Raglan Castle –  Raglan
Carreg Cennen –  Trapp

Fortifications
Dale Fort
Fort Hubberstone
Popton Fort
Pill Fort
Chapel Bay Fort
South Hook Fort
Fort Scoveston
Stack Rock Fort
Thorn Island Fort
St Catherine’s Fort
Fort Belan

Today one can visit many of these as they have been well preserved and restored. You will find that in addition to this display of wealth and excess, vast and beautifully manicured gardens. 

Web Sites with additional Castle Listings;

 ➾ Ancient fortresses.org  
➾ Castles.info 
➾ Bavarian palaces, castles, fortress’s and residences. 
➾ Castles and Manor Houses    
➾ Castles and Palaces of the World  
➾ Castles of Wales
➾ Medieval Castles  
➾ medieval-castles.net  
Additional Château  & Palace Listings;
➾ Châteauxs in France    
➾ Royal Palaces Europe