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One can not emphasize exactly how much culture Europe has to offer. Europe’s ages of humanism, realism, creativity and exploration pulled Europe out of the dark ages and the rest of the world and human civilization into the modern age.
Greece was the birth of western civilization. Their literary, political, scientific and philosophical principles set it apart from other civilizations. Their formation of city states, government, politics and democracy provided individual identity. As well they provided, cultural contributions to the arts, medicine and sciences.Rome then further made cultural contributes to law, engineering, architecture, language and government.
Europeans would later re-discovered these concepts that would propel Europe into a renaissance of thinking. This would lead to a reformation of religion, exploration and colonization of most of the world and industrialization of society. From the mid 16th century to the 20th century Europe would dominate most of the world politically, militarily and economically.
Most visitor’s go to Europe to experience this array of culture that has evolved through its vast diversity and history over the centuries. Because of this we have categorized areas of interests. You may find some are duplicated because they can come under several classifications.
European Commission annually designates a city or cities, to exhibit their culture. In the last 30 years starting with Athens in 1985 and member of the EU has been able to participate in this event. According to the European Commission the European Capitals of Culture initiative is designed to:
In addition to this, experience has shown that the event is an excellent opportunity for:
Initially just one city hosted to the event from 1985-1999. In the year 2000 nine cities hosted to celebrate the millenium. Since then there have been years when two or three cities have been hosts. You will note that EU member countries alternate to host the event with cities competing for the opportunity to exhibit their culture.
It is advisable to plan a visit to one of these cities in a year when they are a capital of culture. Special events, attractions, and exhibits will be available that you normally wouldn’t have the opportunity to see or do.
|Year||City – Country||Year||City – Country|
|1985||🇬🇷 Athens, Greece||2016||🇪🇸 San Sebastián, Spain|
|1986||🇮🇹 Florence, Italy||2016||🇵🇱 Wroclaw, Poland|
|1987||🇳🇱 Amsterdam, Netherlands||2017||🇩🇰 Aarhus, Denmark|
|1988||🇩🇪 Berlin, Germany||2017||🇨🇾 Pafos, Cyprus|
|1989||🇫🇷 Paris, France||2018||🇳🇱 Leeuwarden, Netherlands|
|1990||🇬🇧🏴 Glasgow, Scotland, UK||2018||🇲🇹 Valletta, Malta|
|1991||🇮🇪 Dublin, Ireland||2019||🇮🇹 Matera, Italy|
|1992||🇪🇸 Madrid, Spain||2019||🇧🇬 Plovdiv, Bulgaria|
|1993||🇧🇪 Antwerp, Belgium||2020-21||🇭🇷 Rijeka, Croatia|
|1994||🇵🇹 Lisbon, Portugal||2020-21||🇮🇪 Galway, Ireland|
|1995||🇱🇺 Luxembourg, Luxembourg||2022||🇱🇹 Kaunas, Lithuania|
|1996||🇩🇰 Copenhagen, Denmark||2022||🇱🇺 Esch, Luxembourg|
|1997||🇬🇷 Thessaloniki, Greece||2022||🇷🇸 Novi Sad, Serbia|
|1998||🇸🇪 Stockholm, Sweden||2023||🇭🇺 Veszprém, Hungary|
|1999||🇩🇪 Weimar, Germany||2023||🇷🇴 Timișoara, Romania|
|2000||🇫🇷 Avignon, France||2023||🇬🇷 Elefsina, Greece|
|2000||🇳🇴 Bergen, Norway||2024||🇦🇹 Bad Ischl, Austria|
|2000||🇮🇹 Bologna, Italy||2024||🇪🇪 Tartu, Estonia|
|2000||🇧🇪 Brussels, Belgium||2024||🇳🇴 Bodø, Norway – *TBA|
|2000||🇫🇮 Helsinki, Finland||2025||🇸🇮 Gorica, Slovenia/🇮🇹 Gorizia, Italy|
|2000||🇵🇱 Kraków, Poland||2025||🇩🇪 Chemnitz, Germany|
|2000||🇨🇿 Prague, Czechia||2026||🇸🇰 Trenčín – Slovakia|
|2000||🇮🇸 Reykjavik, Iceland||2026||🇫🇮 Oulu, Finland|
|2000||🇪🇸 Santiago de Compostela, Spain||2027||🇱🇻 Liepāja – Latvia|
|2001||🇳🇱 Rotterdam, Netherlands||2027||🇵🇹 TBA – Portugal|
|2001||🇵🇹 Porto, Portugal||2027||TBA – *TBA|
|2002||🇧🇪 Bruges, Belgium||2028||🇨🇿 TBA – Czechia|
|2002||🇪🇸 Salamanca, Spain||2028||🇫🇷 TBA – France|
|2003||🇦🇹 Graz, Austria||2029||🇵🇱 TBA – Poland|
|2004||🇮🇹 Genoa, Italy||2029||🇸🇪 TBA – Sweden|
|2004||🇫🇷 Lille, France||2030||🇨🇾 TBA – Cyprus|
|2005||🇮🇪 Cork, Ireland||2030||🇧🇪 TBA – Belgium|
|2006||🇬🇷 Patras, Greece||2030||TBA – *TBA|
|2007||🇷🇴 Sibui, Romania||2031||🇲🇹 TBA – Malta|
|2007||🇱🇺 Luxembourg, Luxembourg||2031||🇪🇸 TBA – Spain|
|2008||🇬🇧🏴 Liverpool, England, UK||2032||🇩🇰 TBA – Denmark|
|2008||🇳🇴 Stavanger, Norway||2032||🇧🇬 TBA – Bulgaria|
|2009||🇱🇹 Vilnius, Luthuania||2033||🇳🇱 TBA – Netherlands|
|2009||🇦🇹 Linz, Austria||2033||🇮🇹 TBA – Italy|
|2010||🇩🇪 Essen, Germany||2033||TBA – *TBA|
|2010||🇭🇺 Pécs, Hungary||2034||TBA – *TBA|
|2010||🇹🇷 Istanbul, Turkey||2034||TBA – *TBA|
|2011||🇫🇮 Turku, Finland||2035||TBA – *TBA|
|2011||🇪🇪 Tallinn, Estonia||2035||TBA – *TBA|
|2012||🇵🇹 Guimarãres, Portugal||2036||TBA – *TBA|
|2012||🇸🇮 Maribor, Slovenia||2036||TBA – *TBA|
|2013||🇫🇷 Marseille, France||2036||TBA – *TBA|
|2013||🇸🇰 Koišce Slovakia||2037||TBA – *TBA|
|2014||🇱🇻 Riga Latvia||2037||TBA – *TBA|
|2014||🇸🇪 Umeå Sweden||2038||TBA – *TBA|
|2015||🇧🇪 Mons Belgium||2038||TBA – *TBA|
|2015||🇨🇿 Plzeň Czechia|
* Starting in 2021 the third city will be a non alternating slot so countries and cities may openly compete against each other. This will also allow cities to re-host every third year, providing they win the competition.