Practical Information

While the United States is more similar to Europe than any other place in the world, they of course do some things differently than we do in America. That is why it is important to have some knowledge of the most common differences. The ability to convert and comprehend that information, while traveling in Europe, will only aid your traveling experience. In addition to the data listed below you will find pages about the:

📆 Dates…

Abbreviated dates in Europe are written using the day first, the month and then the year. Be very careful when reviewing bookings or tickets on trains, hotels, tours,  events, etc.

Independence DayVE Day end of WW IIArmistice end of WWI Christmas
July 4, 1776May 8, 1945November 11, 1918December 25, 2011

🗺 Time Zones

When traveling, east to west or west to east, one can easily get jet lag. That’s when your body has been condition to eat or sleep at a certain time and your now in a different time zone when those activities are hours apart. Your body is telling to eat and sleep at your normal time but, you are now doing those activities at a different time. You’ll most likely be able to stay up late at night but, getting up in the morning could be a challenge.

As a reference the grid below reflects the difference in hours between Europe and US time zones. When Greenwich or Universal Time is 12:00 noon the corresponding times are displayed for the other US and european times zones. As an example, at that same time New York is 7:00 am (EST), Rome is 1:00 pm or 13:00 (CET)

Times in Major Cities

Greenwich Mean Time UTC

🇬🇧 Belfast
🇪🇸 Canary Islands
🇮🇪 Dublin
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 Edinburg
🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 Glasgow
🇵🇹 Lisbon
🇬🇧 Liverpool
🇬🇧 London
🇬🇧 Manchester
🇵🇹 Porto
🇮🇸 Reykjavik

Central Europe Time UTC+1

🇪🇸 Barcelona
🇩🇪 Berlin
🇧🇪 Brussels
🇭🇺 Budapest
🇩🇰 Copenhagen
🇵🇱 Kraków
🇪🇸 Madrid
🇫🇷 Paris
🇨🇿 Prague
🇮🇹 Rome
🇸🇪 Stockholm
🇮🇹 Venice
🇦🇹 Vienna

Eastern Europe Time UTC+2

🇬🇷 Athens
🇨🇾 Cyprus
🇷🇴 Bucharest
🇫🇮 Helsinki
🇺🇦 Kyiv
🇱🇻 Riga
🇧🇬 Sofia
🇪🇪 Tallinn
🇱🇹 Vilnius

Turkey Time / Moscow Time UTC+3

🇹🇷 Ankara
🇹🇷 Antalya
🇹🇷 Istanbul
🇧🇾 Minsk
🇷🇺 Moscow
🇷🇺 St. Petersburg

indicates these cities do not recognize Daylight Savings Time

Eastern Time UTC-5

New York
Washington DC

Central Time UTC-6

Kansas City
New Orleans
St. Louis

Mountain Time UTC-7

El Paso

Salt Lake City

These cities do not observe Daylight Savings

Pacific Time UTC-8

Las Vegas
Los Angles
San Diego
San Francisco

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

GMT = Greenwich Mean Time UTC +0 (BST = British Summer Time, WEST = Western European Summer Time, WET = Western European Time)
CET = Central European Time UTC +1 (CEST Central European Summer Time)
EET = Eastern European Time UTC +2 (EEST = Eastern European Summer Time)
MSKS = Moscow Time UTC +3
TRT = Turkey Time UTC +3

Change to Daylight Savings Time at 2 am- March 28, 2021
Change to Regular Time at 2 am - October 31, 2021
Belarus, Iceland and Russia have no time change to daylight savings in the summer months. Autonomous Republic of the Crimea has recently changed their time to MSK Moscow Time

🕐 24 Hour Clock...

Europe uses a 24 hour clock (military time) for official timetables. Things that use schedules like buses, trains, etc., use the 24 hour clock. Instead of using two 12 hour segments, am and pm, it is one 24 hour segment. After 12:00 midnight hours start from 1:00 to 12:00 noon just like in the US but instead of 1:00 pm it will now be 13:00. The hours go up accordingly until 24:00 or 12:00 midnight.

USA am / Europe amUSA pm /Europe pm
1:00 am/ 1:001:00 pm /13:00
2:00 am/ 2:002:00 pm /14:00
3:00 am/ 3:003:00 pm /15:00
4:00 am/ 4:004:00 pm /16:00
5:00 am/ 5:005:00 pm /17:00
6:00 am/ 6:006:00 pm /18:00
7:00 am/ 7:007:00 pm /19:00
8:00 am/ 8:008:00 pm /20:00
9:00 am/ 9:009:00 pm /21:00
10:00 am/ 10:0010:00 pm /22:00
11:00 am/ 11:0011:00 pm /23:00
12:00 noon/ 12:0012:00 midnight /24:00

To quickly calculate afternoon times just subtract 12 from the time. If the time is 15:30 subtract 12 from that and you get 3:30 pm.

🌡 Temperature Conversion Table...

 In the US we use the fahrenheit scale to measure temperature but, in Europe they use the celsius scale. The following table converts Celsius to Fahrenheit.





0º Celsius = 32º Fahrenheit water freezes / 100º = 212º water boils

⚖️ Units & Measurements ...

Metric to Imperial

• 1 Centimeter = 0.393700787 Inches
• 1 Meter = 3.2808399 Feet
• 1 Kilometer = 1.0936133 Yards
• 1 Gram = 0.0352739619 Ounce
• 1 Kilogram = 35.27 Ounces / 2.204 Pounds
• 1 Litre = 35.2739619 Fluid Ounces

Imperial conversion to Metric

• 1 Inch = 2.54 Centimeters
• 1 Foot = 30.48Centimeters
• 1 Yard = 0.9144 Meters
• 1 Mile = 1.609344 Kilometers
• 1 Ounce = 28.3495231 Grams
• 1 Pound = 0.45359237 Kilogram
• 1 Pint = 0.473176473 Liter
• 1 Quart = 0.946352946 Litre
• 1 Gallon = 3.7854118 Liters

When shopping for clothes and shoes in Europe you will find those sizes vary in the UK and continental Europe from US sizes. For a conversion table of sizes on our ➾ Shopping page.

🔠 Alphabets & Letters...

Alphabets & Numerals...

It is one challenge to read and pronounce another language using the latin alphabet it is another thing when using a different alphabet. Several countries use different alphabets and will be almost impossible for the average person to decipher. Greece uses the Greek alphabet while Belarus, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Russia, Ukraine use the Cyrillic. Bosnia Hercegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia use both the Latin and Cyrillic. All other European countries use the latin alphabet.

A a
B b
C c
D d
C c
E e
F f
G g
H h
I i
J j
K k
L l
M m
N n
O o
P p
Q q
R r
S s
T t
U u
V v
W w
X x
Y y
Z z

Α α
Β β
Γ γ
Δ δ
Ε ε
Ζ ζ
Η η
Θ θ
Ι ι
Ν ν
Κ κ
Λ λ
Μ μ
Ξ ξ
Ο ο
Ρ ρ
Σ σ
Τ τ
Υ υ
Φ φ
Χ χ
Ψ ψ
Ω ω

А а
Б б
В в
Г г
Д д
Е е
Ё ё
Ж ж
З з
И и
Й й
К к
Л л
М м
Н н
О о
П п
Р р
С с
Т т
У у
Х х
Ц ч
Ш ш
Щ щ
Б ъ
Ь ь
Э э
Ю ю
Я я

Most European countries use the latin alphabet and use all 26 letters as used in the US. However, several countries have extended their alphabets with ligatures, modified letters or digraphs.

AcuteÁ áĆ ćÉ éÍ í Ĺ ĺÓ óÚ úÝ ý
AshÆ æ
BreveĂ ăĞ ğ
CaronČ čĚ ěŇŘ řŠ šŤ ťŽ ž
CaudataĄ ąĘ  ęĮ įŲ ų
CedillaÇ çĢ ģĻ  ļŅ ņŞ şȚ țŽ ž
Circumflex âÊ êÎ îÔ ôÛ û
DotĖ  ėĠ ġİ  i
Double AcuteŐ ő
EthÐ ð
GraveÀ àÈ èÌ ìÒ òÙ ù
MacronĀ āĒ ēĪ īŌ ōŪ ū
O & E ligatureŒ œ
OgonekĄ ąĮ  į 
RingÅ åŮ ůŮ ů
SlashØ ø
StrokeĐ đĦ ħŁ ł
ThornÞ  þ
Tildeà ãÑ ñ
UmlautÄ äË ëÏ ïÖ öÜ üŸ ÿ

Country Codes...

ISO Country Codes are internationally recognized codes for each country. Depending on the situation they can be a Alpha 2 or 3 letter code or a numerical code.

Two letter suffixes like (.fr for France or .de for Germany) are used in top levels domains. Three letter codes are usually used in international events like sports, contests, etc.

 The numerical code is the United Nations M49 for identification of countries, dependencies and other areas.

Country2 code3 code # code
🇪🇺 European UnionEUEUE150
🇦🇱 AlbaniaALALB008
🇦🇩 AndorraADAND020
🇦🇹 AustriaATAUT040
🇧🇾 BelarusBYBLR112
🇧🇪 BelgiumBEBEL056
🇧🇦 Bosnia HerzegovinaBABIH070
🇧🇬 BulgariaBGBGR100
🇭🇷 CroatiaHRHRV191
🇨🇾 CyprusCYCYP196
🇨🇿 CzechiaCZCZE203
🇩🇰 DenmarkDKDNK208
🇪🇪 EstoniaEEEST233
🇫🇴 Faroe IslandsFOFRO234
🇫🇮 FinlandFIFIN246
🇫🇷 FranceFRFRA250
🇩🇪 GermanyDEDEU276
🇬🇮 GibraltarGIGIB292
🇬🇷 GreeceGRGRC300
🇬🇬 GuernseyGGGGY831
🇻🇦 Holy SeeVAVAT336
🇭🇺 HungaryHUHUN348
🇮🇸 IcelandISISL352
🇮🇪 IrelandIEIRL372
🇮🇲 Isle of ManIMIMN833
🇮🇹 ItalyITITA380
🇯🇪 Jersey JEJEY832
🇱🇻 LatviaLVLVA428
🇱🇮 LiechtensteinLILIE438
🇱🇹 LithuaniaLTLTU440
🇱🇺 LuxembourgLULUX442
🇲🇹 MaltaMTMLT470
🇲🇩 MoldovaMDMDA498
🇲🇨 MonacoMCMCO492
🇲🇪 MontenegroMEMNE499
🇳🇱 NetherlandsNLNLD528
🇲🇰 North MacedoniaMKMKD807
🇳🇴 NorwayNONOR578
🇵🇱 PolandPLPOL616
🇵🇹 PortugalPTPRT630
🇷🇴 RomaniaROROU642
🇷🇺 RussiaRURUS643
🇸🇲 San MarinoSMSMR666
🇷🇸 SerbiaRSSRB688
🇸🇰 SlovakiaSKSVK703
🇸🇮 SloveniaSISVN705
🇪🇸 SpainESESP724
🇳🇴 Svalbard & Jan MayenSJSJM744
🇸🇪 SwedenSESWE752
🇨🇭 SwitzerlandCHCHE756
🇹🇷 TurkeyTRTUR792
🇺🇦 UkraineUAUKR804
🇬🇧 United KingdomGBGBR826

European Vernaculars & Customs...

As we said to be in Europe is to be in another country in which they will label, say and do things differently from the US. You can find it very helpful to gain a little understanding  on some common everyday uses.

Floor Levels on multiple storied buildings are labeled slightly different. While the ground floor is always the main floor the one above in Europe is the 1st floor, not the second floor as we called it here. This will be good for you to know so you can remember what floor your hotel room is on.

EuropeUnited States
Ground or Main floor1st floor or Main floor
1st Floor2nd Floor
2nd Floor3rd Floor
3rd Floor4th Floor
Make sure you take the lift (elevator) to the correct hotel room floor.

Local Names

Countries and Cities in their language will vary from our pronunciation and spelling. Listed are names with our English version as opposed to the local version.


Albania is Shqipëri
Andorra is Andorre (French)
Austria is Österreich
Belarus is Bielaruś (Беларусь)
Belgium is Belgique ( French)
België (Dutch)
Belgien (German)
Bosnia & Hercegovina is Bosna i Hercegovina
Bulgaria is Bŭlgariya (България)
Croatia is Hrvatska
Cyprus is Κύπρος (Greek)
Czechia is Česko
Denmark is Danmark
Germany is Deutschland (German)
Dútslân (Frisian)
Estonia is Eesti
Finland is Suomi

France is Francia (Corsican)
Greece is Elláda (Ελλάδα)
Hungary is Magyarország
Iceland is Ísland
Ireland is Éireann
Italy is Italia
Latvia is Latvija
Lithuania is Lietuva
Luxembourg is Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourgish)
Montenegro is Crna Gora
Netherlands is Nederland (Dutch)
Nederlân (Frisian)
North Macedonia is Severna Makedonija (Северна Македонија)
Norway is Norge
Poland is Polska
Romania is România

Russia is Rossiya (Россия)
Serbia is Srbija (Србија)
Slovakia is Slovensko
Slovenia is Slovenija
Spain is  España (Spanish)
Espainiako (Basque)
Espanya (Catalan)
Sweden is Sverige
Switzerland is Schwiez (German)
Suisse (French)
Svizzera (Italian)
Turkey is Türkiye
Ukriane is Ukrayiny (Україна)
Scotland is Alba (Gaelic)
Wales is Cymru
Vatican City is Città del Vaticano (Italian)


Alicante is Alacant
Antwerp is Antwerpen
Athens is Athena (Αθήνα)
Auschwitz is Owieçim
Basel is Bâle
Belfast is Béal Feirste
Belgrade is Beograd (београд)
Bruges is Brugge
Brussels is Bruxelles
Bucharest is București
Cardiff is Caerdydd
Cologne is Köln
Copenhagen is København
Corfu is Kérkyra
Corinth is Kórinthos
Cork is Coraigh
Dublin is Baile Ath Cliath
Dunkirk is Dunkerque

Florence is Firenze
Galway is Gaillimh
Geneva is Genéve
Genoa is Genova
Ghent is Gent
Gothenburg is Göteborg
Hanover is Hannover
Heraklion is Iráklio
Killarney is Cill Airnie
Kilkenny is Cill Chainnigh
Kiev is Kyyiv (Київ)
Lisbon is Lisboa
Lucerne is Luzerne
Milan is Milano
Minsk (Мінск)
Moscow is Moskva (Москва)
Munich is München

Naples is Napoli
Nuremberg is Nürnberg
Patras is Pátra
Pilsen is Plzen
Pireaus is Píreás
Prague is Praha
Porto is Oporto
Rome is Roma
St. Petersburg is Sankt-Peterburg (Санкт-Петербург)
Seville is Sevilla
Sofia is Sofiya (София)
The Hague is Den Haag
Turin is Torino
Vienna is Wien
Venice is Venezia
Warsaw is Warszawa
Ypres is leper
Zurich is Zürich

Variable Word Definitions...

Even when you converse with English speakers you will find they can use different nouns or verbs to describe the same object or action. While we may use multiple words to describe things in the States, there may be only the single use in some areas of Europe. Here are but a few for your traveling terms. 

An Apartment  is a FLAT
A Beltway or By Pass Road is the RING ROAD
Cafeteria is a CANTEEN 
Cell Phones are called MOBILE PHONES
Collect Call is a REVERSE CHARGE
Cookie is a BISCUIT
When asking for Discounts say Concessions
Elevators are typically called LIFTS
Faucet is a TAP
French Fries are CHIPS (in the UK) and Frites elsewhere
Gasoline is PETROL
Garbage is TRASH
Over Pass on a road is a FLYOVER
Parking Lot is a CAR PARK 
To Pass in traffic is to OVERTAKE
Pharmacists  is a CHEMIST
To Pick Up somebody is to COLLECT
Potato Chips are CRISPS
To Rent something like a car is to HIRE
Round Trip Ticket or Journey is a RETURN TICKET or RETURN JOURNEY
A taxi or car Ride is to get a LIFT
Sidewalk is a FOOTPATH
Silverwareis CUTLERY
Sneakers are TRAINERS
Stores are SHOPS
Suspenders for pants are BRACES
To Go as food TO TAKE or TAKE AWAY
Restrooms are TOILETS
A Truck can be a LORRY
The Trunk of a car is a BOOT
Vacation is a HOLIDAY