Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.

Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN’s term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country’s geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.


Russia Tourism Information…


The Best of Russia…

 Here is a list of some of the most interesting and visited places. Cities or areas listed will always have more than just one thing see and do. With the popular cities or areas we list some of the best known, which should go on everyone’s, must see list when they visit.  
The Golden Ring
Kaliningrad Curonian Split
Kronstadt  Saint Nicolas Cathedral
Karelia  Kizi Island
Moscow The Kremlin
Pushkin Museum
Red Square
St. Basil’s Cathedral
Mt. Elbrus & The Caucasus
Nizhny Novgorod
Grand Palace-Peterhof
St. Petersburg The Hermitage & Winter Palace
Catherine Palace
Peter Paul Fortress
Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood
Volgograd  The Motherland Calls’ Sculpture
Battlefields of Volgograd


Russia Country Information…



Largest City:



Federal Semi-presidential Constitutional Republic


Russian Ruble (Pуб.)


Total: 17,098,242 km2 water: 720,500 km2 land: 16,377,742 km2 ranked 1st


Ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast


142,355,415 (July 2016 est.) ranked 10th


Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1% note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)

Ethnic Groups:

Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%


Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions


230V, 50Hz (European plug C, F )

Telephone Code:


Local Emergency Phone Number:


Internet TLD:


Time Zone:

MSKS (UTC+3) European Region only

Road Driving Side:



“Государственный гимн Российской Федерации” “Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii”  (transliteration) “State Anthem of the Russian Federation”


Vladimir Putin

Prime Minister:

Dmitry Medvedev


Holidays and Observances in Russia in 2021

Date NameType
Jan 1FridayNew Year’s DayNational holiday
Jan 4MondayNew Year HolidayNational holiday
Jan 5TuesdayNew Year HolidayNational holiday
Jan 6WednesdayNew Year HolidayNational holiday
Jan 7ThursdayOrthodox Christmas DayNational holiday, Orthodox
Jan 8FridayNew Year HolidayNational holiday
Jan 14ThursdayOld New YearObservance
Feb 14SundayValentine’s DayObservance
Feb 20SaturdayWorking dayWorking day (replacement)
Feb 22MondayPublic HolidayNational holiday
Feb 23TuesdayDefender of the Fatherland DayNational holiday
Feb 27SaturdaySpecial Operations Forces DayObservance
Mar 8MondayInternational Women’s DayNational holiday
Mar 11ThursdayIsra and Mi’rajMuslim
Mar 20SaturdayMarch EquinoxSeason
Apr 13TuesdayRamadan startsMuslim
May 1SaturdaySpring and Labor DayNational holiday
May 2SundayOrthodox Easter DayObservance, Orthodox
May 3MondayDay off for Spring and Labor DayNational holiday
May 4TuesdayPublic HolidayNational holiday
May 5WednesdayPublic HolidayNational holiday
May 6ThursdayPublic HolidayNational holiday
May 7FridayPublic HolidayNational holiday
May 9SundayLailat al-QadrMuslim
May 9SundayVictory DayNational holiday
May 10MondayDay off for Victory DayNational holiday
May 13ThursdayEid al-FitrMuslim
Jun 12SaturdayRussia DayNational holiday
Jun 14MondayDay off for Russia DayNational holiday
Jun 21MondayJune SolsticeSeason
Jul 20TuesdayEid al-AdhaMuslim
Aug 10TuesdayMuharramMuslim
Sep 1WednesdayDay of KnowledgeObservance
Sep 22WednesdaySeptember EquinoxSeason
Oct 19TuesdayThe Prophet’s BirthdayMuslim
Nov 4ThursdayUnity DayNational holiday
Nov 5FridayPublic holidayNational holiday
Dec 21TuesdayDecember SolsticeSeason
Dec 31FridayPublic HolidayNational holiday