History

Europe’s history is fascinating with events and people that have changed civilization and the world forever.  While some have move civilization forward for the better, others have caused great destruction and death. Many conflicts arose over the struggles for power, religion, wealth, commerce and logistics. Europe is an immense history book on many subjects. Great civilizations, the arts, religion, war, politics, commerce, sciences & exploration are all a big part of Europe, past and present. The more you understand about what you are looking at when visiting Europe, the more you will come away with an appreciation and comprehension of what you have seen. What role did this place play in history and how did affect us and the time we live in? What were artists trying to convey to us in their paintings and sculptures? What roll did certain buildings or structures perform and why were they built? So many questions can be answered when you have a little background about the places you plan to visit. This is why small tours are helpful when visiting important sites. A good guide can be informative, bring more meaning to your tour.

Listed are events within their time periods, famous Europeans and important eras for architecture, art, music and philosophy. As you visit many sights you’ll be confronted with a lot of the terminology below. Familiarity with the events, people and the eras in which they lived in will provide a greater understanding to what you see and hear on your visit.

Significant Events and Periods in European History…

B.C.E. (before common era)
  • 43,000 – 40,000 BCE First Cro-Magnons appear in Europe
  • ca. 40,000 – 2,000 BCE The construction of Stonehenge

3000 BCE – 600 BCE Bronze Age in Europe

  • 2700 – 1600 BCE – Minoan Civilization
    • 2000 – 1700 BCE – Old Palace period
    • 1700 – 1400 BCE – New Palace period
    • 1400 – 1200 BCE – Post Palatial period
  • 1628 BCE – Eruption of Theran (Santorini)
  • 1600 – 1100 BCE – Mycenae Civilization
    • 1200 BCE – Destruction of Mycenaean Palaces

800 BCE – 600 AD Classical Europe Antiquity Age

800 BCE – 400 AD Iron Age in Europe

  • 776 BCE – First Olympic Games
  • 768 BCE – 264 BCE Etruscan Civilization
  • 753 BCE – Founding of Roman State
  • 510 – 323 BCE Classical Greece
  • 509 – 27 BCE – Roman Republic & expulsion of Etruscans from Rome
  • 490 – 479 BCE Persian Wars
    • 490 BCE – Battle of Marathon
  • 431 BCE – 404 BCE – Peloponnessian War
  • 431 BCE – Battle of Syracuse
  • 336 – 323 BCE – Alexander the Great’s reign
  • 331 BCE – Battle Gaugamela (Arbela)
  • 323 – 31 BCE Hellenistic Greece
  • 281 BCE – 203 BCE 2nd Punic Wars
  • 207 BCE – Battle of Mataurus
  • 146 BCE – 3rd Punic War, Rome destroys Carthage & conquers Greece
  • 49 BCE – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon & Civil War
  • 44 BCE – Julius Caesar Murdered: End of Roman Republic and beginning of Empire
  • 31 BCE – Battle of Actium
  • 27 BCE – 476 AD Roman Empire west
AD (anno domini)
1st to 9th Centuries
  • 9 – Battle of Teutoburg Forest
  • 79 – Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
  • 285 – Dioceltian becomes emperor and splits the Roman Empire into Eastern & Western Empires
  • 313 – Edict of Milan: Constantine accepts Christianity
  • 330 – 1453 Roman Empire East, Constantinople becomes its capitol
  • 300 – 700 – Age of Migrations
    • 300 – 500 1st wave – The Goths
    • 500 – 700 2nd wave – Early Slavs
  • 410 – Rome sacked by Visigoths
  • 451 – Battle of Chalons
  • 455 – Rome sacked by the Vandals
  • 476 – End of Western Roman Empire
  • 480 – Last Roman Emperor Julius Nepos dies

500-1000 Early Middle (Dark) Ages

  • 500 – 843 Frankish Kingdom
  • 529 – Benedict establishes Rule for Monasteries & Founded Order of St. Benedict “Benedictines”
  • 600 – 1000 Rise of Towns & Commerce
  • 602 – 628 Byzantine-Sasanian War
  • 681 – 1018 1st Bulgarian Empire
  • 697 – 1797 Republic of Venice
  • 793 – 1066 Viking Age
  • 711 – Moors conquest of Visigothic Hispania
  • 718 -1492 Reconquista:
    • 718 Battle of Covadonga
    • 1236 – Fall of Córdoda
    • 1248 – Fall of Sevilla
    • 1492 – Alhambra Decree ends Muslim rule on Iberian peninsula
  • 732 – Charles Martels defeats Muslims at Battle of (Poitiers) Tours
  • 768 – 814 Reign of Charlemagne
10th Century
  • 910 – Cluny Abbey is founded by William I, Count of Auvergne
  • 929 – 1031 Caliphate of Cordoba
  • 936 – 973 Reign of Otto the Great
  • 962 – 1806 Holy Roman Empire
  • 985 – Eric the Red exiled from Iceland, colonizes Greenland
11th Century
  • 1000-1301 – Kingdom of Hungary

1000 – 1300 High Middle Ages

  • 1042 – Building of Westminster Abbey starts
  • 1054 – Esat-West Schism between Roman Catholic & Greek Orthodox churches
  • 1060 – 1101 – Norman conquest of Sicily & southern Italy
  • 1066 – Battle of Hastings – Norman conquest of England
  • 1077 – Construction of London Tower begins

1096 – 1300 The Crusades

  • 1096 – 1099 1st Crusade
  • 1099 – Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem founded “Knights Hospitaller”
12th Century
  • 1117 – University of Oxford founded
  • 1118 – Supreme Order of Christ founded “Knights Templar”
  • 1147 – 1149 2nd Crusade
  • 1185 – 1396 2nd Bulgarian Empire
  • 1189 – 1192 3rd Crusade
  • 1192 – Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem Founded “Teutonic Knights”
13th Century
  • 1200 – University of Paris founded
  • 1202 – 1204 4th Crusade
  • 1204 – Siege of Constantinople
  • 1209 – University of Cambridge founded
  • 1209 – Order of Friars Minor “Franciscans” founded
  • 1215 – Magna Carta signed by John of England
  • 1215 – Order of Preachers “Dominican” founded
  • 1217 – 1221 5th Crusade
  • 1228 – 1229 6th Crusade
  • 1237 – Mongol invasions of Eastern Europe
  • 1239 – 1241 Baron’s Crusade
  • 1244 –  Order of Saint Augustine founded “Augustinians”
  • 1248 – 1254 7th Crusade
  • 1261 – 1453 Byzantine Empire
  • 1270 – 8th Crusade
  • 1271 – 1272 9th Crusade
  • 1271 – 1292 Marco Polo in China
  • 1291 Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel “Carmelties” founded
14th Century

1300 – 1500 Late Middle Ages

1300-1700 The Renaissance

  • 1305 – Papacy moved to Avignon
  • 1315 – 1317 – The Great Famine
  • 1337 – 1453 – Hundred Years’ War: War between English Plantagenet rulers and French house of Valois
    • 1415 – Battle of Agincourt
    • 1429 – Joan of Arc’s victory over British at Orleans
    • 1429 – Battle of Patay
    • 1431 – Trail & Execution of Joan of Arc
  • 1348 – 1350 Bubonic Plague (Black Death)
  • 1378 – 1417 Great Papal Schism
  • 1382 – John Wycliffe translates Bible into English
  • 1397 – Kalmar Union: Unites Denmark Sweden & Norway
15th Century
  • 1400 – Canterberry Tales published
  • 1440 – Guttenberg Printing Press

1450-1950 The Age of Western Colonialism

  • 1453 – 1917 Ottoman Empire – Fall of Constantinople to Ottomans, end of Byzantine Empire
  • 1455 – 1487 War of the Roses in England
    • 1455 – Battle of St. Albans / 1485 – Battle of Bowsorth Field
    • 1487 – Battle of Stoke
  • 1486 – Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope

1488- 1763 The Age of Exploration

  • 1492 – Reconquista Ends: Unification of Spain
  • 1492 – 1660 Age of Exploration
  • 1492 – Columbus lands in San Salvador
  • 1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope divides the world outside of Europe between Portugal & Spain
  • 1494 – 1518 The Italian Wars
  • 1497 – 1499 Vasco da Gama reaches India
  • 1499 – France captures Milan
16th Century
  • 1502 – 1659 Spanish Wars 
  • 1512 – 1559 Franco-Imperial Wars
  • 1517 – Luther posts 95 Theses

1517-1648 The Reformation

  • 1519 – 1522 Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation of the earth
  • 1526 – 1804 Habsburg Monarchy
  • 1529 – 1534 Henry VIII leads Church of England to Angelican
  • 1534 – 1980 French Colonial Empire
  • 1540 – Society of Jesus “Jesuites” founded
  • 1545 – 1573 Counter Reformation – Council of Trent
  • 1546 – 1547 Schmalkaldic War: between Holy Roman Empire and Lutheran League
  • 1553 – 1558 Reign of Bloody Mary Tudor
  • 1562 – 1629 French Wars of Religion & Civil Wars
  • 1566 – 1684 Spanish conflict with Dutch
  • 1583 – 1997 British Empire
  • 1588 – Defeat of the Spanish Armada
  • 1598 – Edict of Nantes – Henry IV of France grants rights to Protestants
17th Century
  • 1609 – Galileo constructs the telescope
  • 1616 – 1648 Thirty Years War
    • 1648 Treaty of Westphalia
  • 1642 – 1651 English Civil War

1648- 1919 The Age of Imperialism

  • 1649 – 1653 Oliver Cromwell reign in England: after Charles I is executed 1649
  • 1661 – 1789 Age of Absolutism
  • 1666 – The Great London Fire
  • 1688 – The Glorious Revolution – Overthrow of James II by English Parliamentarians
18th Century
  • 1701 – 1713 War of Spanish Succession -ends with Peace of Utrecht 1713
  • 1703 – Peter the Great founds St. Petersburg
  • 1704 – Battle of Blenheim -Preserved Vienna from Franco-Bavarian advance
  • 1709 – Battle of (Plotava) Pultowa – Russia defeats Sweden
  • 1740 – 1748 War of Austrian Succession – ends with Pragmatic Sanction
  • 1740 – 1796 Era of Enlighten Rulers

1760 – 1870 Industrial Revolution

1775 – 1880 Age of Enlightenment

  • 1783 – Montgolfier Brothers fly 1st hot air balloon
  • 1789 – French Revolution
  • 1792 – Battle of Valamy – French stop Prussian invasion
19th Century
  • 1803 – 1815 Napoleonic Wars
    • 1805 – Battle of Austerlitz – Napoleons greatest victory
    • 1815 – Battle of Waterloo – Napoleons final defeat

1815 – 1932 European Diaspora

  • 1821 – 1832 Greek War of Independence from Ottomans
  • 1833 – Slavery Abloshed in British Empire
  • 1845 – 1849 The Great Famine Ireland
  • 1848 – Revolutions of 1848
  • 1848 – 1871 Unification of Germany
  • 1848 – Marx publishes Communist Manifesto
  • 1851 – The Great Exhibition in London
  • 1853 – 1856 Crimean War
  • 1858 – Transatlantic Cable
  • 1859 – Darwin’s Theory of Evolution published
  • 1863 – London Underground opens
  • 1866 – Austro-Prussian War
  • 1870 – 1871 Franco Prussian War
  • 1871 – Unification of Italy
  • 1877 – 1878 Russo-Turkish War
  • 1888 – Jack the Ripper murders in London
  • 1889 – Eiffel Tower inaugurated in Paris
  • 1896 – First Modern Olympic Games are held in Athens
20th Century
  • 1901 – First Nobel prizes awarded
  • 1903 – First Tour de France is held
  • 1912 – RMS Titanic Disaster
  • 1914 – 1919 World War I
    • 6/28/1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    • Aug. 1914 – Nov. 1918 War on the Western Front
    • Aug. 1914 – Mar. 1918 War on the Eastern Front
    • 1915 – RMS Lusitania Torpedoed
    • Feb. 1915- Jan. 1916 Gallipoli Campaign
    • Oct. 1914 – Oct. 1918 Middle Eastern Campaign
    • 11/11/1918 Germany signs the Armistice of Compiègne
    • Jan. – July 1919 Treaty of Versailles
  • 1917 – Russian Revolution – End of Tsarist rule in Russia
  • 1929 – 1939 Great Depression
  • 1929 – 1937 Soviet Deportations & Collectivizations
  • 1932 – 1933 Holodomor Famine in the Soviet Union
  • 1933 – Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
  • 1936 – 1939 Spanish Civil War
  • 1937 – 1939 The Great Purge in the Soviet Union
  • 1939 – 1945 World War II
    • Sep. 1939 Germany invades Poland /
    • Apr. 1940 Germany invades Denmark & Norway
    • May 1940 Germany attacks France, Belgium, Netherlands & Luxembourg
    • May-June 1940 Dunkirk
    • Jun.14. 1940 Germany occupies Paris
    • Jun.22,1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union
    • Sep. 1941-Jan.1944 Siege of Leningrad
    • 12/7/1941 Pearl Harbor
    • Aug. 1942 – Feb.1943 Battle of Stalingrad
    • Jun.6 1944 D-Day
    • Dec. 1944-Jan.1945 Battle of the Bulge
    • 1945 Atomic bomb of Hiroshima & Nagasaki
    • May 8,1945 Germany surrenders
    • Nov. 1945 – Oct.1946 Nuremberg Tribunal
  • 1939 – 1945 The Holocaust
  • 1947 – 1989 Cold War
  • 1948 – 1949 Berlin Blockade
  • 1949 – Formation of NATO
  • 1957 – USSR launched Sputnik into space
  • 1961 – Construction of the Berlin Wall
  • 1985 – Schengen Agreement
  • 1986 – Chernobyl Disaster
  • 1989 – Fall of the Berlin Wall
  • 1990 – German Reunification
  • 1991 – Soviet Union Offically Ceased
  • 1993 – European Union – Maastricht Treaty
21st Century
  • 2002 – Adoption of the Euro
  • 2016 – The Czech Republic approves a wider use of the name Czechia
  • 2016 – The United Kingdom votes to exit the European Union
  • 2019 – The former Republic of Macedonia officially changes its name to the Republic of North Macedonia
  • 2020-2021 – World wide pandemic of Covid 19 virus
  • 2021 – The United Kingdom finalizes the exit from the European Union

Eras of Culture…

The timelines below reflect the eras in which civilizations has an influence over the development of architecture, art, sculpture, cuisine, design, clothing and the overall norms and lifestyles of their society.

Culture Period Timeline…
  • 30000 BCE Paleolithic Art
  • 4000 BCE Neolithic Period
  • 3000 BCE – 1200 BCE Prehistoric Aegean – Helladic (mainland Greece), Minoan (Crete), Cycladic (Cyclades)
    • 3000 BCE – 2000 BCE Early Helladic, Early Minoan, Early Cycladic
    • 2000 BCE – 1700 BCE Middle Helladic, Middle Minoan, Middle Cycladic
    • 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE Late Helladic-Mycenaean, Late Minoan, Late Cycladic
    • 1200 BCE – 1000 BCE Sub Mycenaean, Sub Minoan
  • 8th Century BCE – 393 CE Classical Period
    • 900 BCE – 700 BCE Villanovan Greece
    • 700 BCE – 600 BCE Orientalizing Greece
    • 600 BCE – 480 BCE Archaic Greece
    • 509 BCE – 27 BCE Early Rome Republic
    • 480 BCE – 323 BCE Classical Greece
      • 480 – 450 Early Classical
      • 450 – 400 High Classical
      • 400 – 323 Late Classical
    • 323 BCE – 89 BCE Hellenistic Greece
    • 27 BCE – 96 CE Early Roman Empire
    • 96 – 192 High Roman Empire
    • 192 – 337 Late Roman Empire
  • 330 – 1453 Byzantine
    • 527 – 726 Early Byzantine
    • 726 – 843 Iconoclasm
    • 843 – 1204 Middle Byzantine
    • 1204 – 1453 Late Byzantine
  • 476 – 1024 Early France & Germany
    • 476 – 751 Merovingian
    • 751 – 936 Carolingian
    • 936 – 1024 Ottonian
  • 476 – 1050 Hibernio-Saxon Period in British Isles & Viking Period in Scandinavia
  • 963 – 1120 Romanesque
  • 1140 – 1500 Gothic
    • 1140 – 1194 Early Gothic
    • 1194 – 1300 High Gothic
    • 1300 – 1500 Late Gothic
  • 1401 – 1490 Early Renaissance
  • 1430 – 1580 Northern Renaissance
  • 1490 – 1527 High Renaissance
  • 1520 – 1620 Mannerism
  • 1584 – 1723 Baroque
  • 1600 – 1672 Dutch Golden Age
  • 1702 – 1780 Rococo
  • 1780 – 1830 Romanticism
  • 1840 – 1880 Realism
  • 1872 – 1892 Impressionism
  • 1880 – 1910 Symbolism
  • 1880 – 1914 Post-Impressionism
  • 1890 – 1905 Art Nouveau
  • 1900 – 1945 Art Deco
  • 1899 – 1908 Fauvism
  • 1905 – 1933 Expressionism
  • 1907 – 1922 Cubist
  • 1916 – 1924 Dada
  • 1915 – 1930 Constructivism
  • 1919 – 1933 Bauhaus
  • 1924 – 1966 Surrealism
Music Period Timeline…
  • before 500 Ancient
  • 800 -1400 Middle Ages
    • 800 – 1000 Early Medieval
    • 900 – 1300 Polyphony
    • 1100 – 1300 Secular
    • 1300 – 1400 Late Medieval
  • 1400 – 1600 Renaissance
  • 1600 – 1750 Baroque
  • 1750 – 1825 Classical
  • 1825 – 1920 Romantic 
  • 1920 – 2000 Modern Music
Philosophy Period Timeline…
  • Pre-Socratic 624 – 379 BCE
  • Ancient 370 – 43 BCE
  • Medieval 400-1400
  • Renaissance 1350-1650
  • Modern 1600- 1925
  • Contemporary 1875- 

Fall of European Empires, Kingdoms & States…

The lists below itemizes those empires, kingdoms, duchies, states or principalities that would control their own sovereignty. The second lists are those who were either a vassal or state of another empire or kingdom. They would be obligated to the superior state or empire. Some empires can still exist today because they occupy or have administrative power over foreign countries or territories.

Time Period Span – Name of State – Area of Origin – Capital
  • 334 – 323 BC     Macedonian Empire – Macedonia – Pella
  • 27 BC – 1453     Roman Empire – Italy – Rome, Constantinople
  • 250 – 950     Frankish Empire – Western Europe – Soissons, Paris, Reims, Orléans, Metz & Aachen
  • 260 – 272     Gallic Empire – Rhineland-Palatinate – Colonia Aprippina (cologne), Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
  • 286 – 296     Britannic Empire – Britain – Londinium
  • 370 – 469     Hunnic Empire – Central Europe – Pliska, Preslav, Skopie, Ohrid & Bitola
  • 395 – 1453     Byzantine Empire – Greece, Anatolia, Africa, Palestine, Syria, Italy – Constantinople
  • 395 – 476     Western Roman Empire – Italy – Mediolanum, Ravenna
  • 418 – 721     Visigothic Kingdom – Spain, France – Toulouse, Narbonne, Barcelona, Toledo
  • 475 – 553     Ostrogothic Kingdom – Italy, Croatia, Slovenia – Ravenna
  • 681 – 1018     1st Bulgarian Empire – Balkans – 
  • 697 – 1797     Venice, Republic – NE Italy, Croatia, Greece, Cyprus – Venice 
  • 754 – 1870     Papal States – Italy – Rome 
  • 756 – 1031     Caliphate of Córdoba – Iberian Peninsula – Córdoba
  • 824 – 1841    Navarre – Northeast Spain – Pamplona
  • 833 – 900     Great Moravian Empire – Central Europe – Mikulčice-Valy 
  • 843 – 1482     Scotland, Kingdom – Northern Isle of Britain – Edinburgh
  • 962 – 1806     Holy Roman Empire – Central Europe – Vienna, Regensburg, Wetzlar
  • 1000 – 1946    Hungary, Kingdom – Hungary, Romania, Balkans – Esztergom, Temesvár, Visegrád, Budapest
  • 1005 – 1797    Genoa, Republic – NW Italy, Genoa
  • 1016 – 1035     North Sea Empire – Denmark – Copenhagen
  • 1025 – 1569     Poland, Kingdom – Poland – Gniezno, Poznań, Płock, Kraków
  • 1035 – 1707     Aragon, Kingdom – Iberian Peninsula – Jaca, Huesca, Zaragoza
  • 1065 – 1230     Castile, Kingdom – Central Iberian peninsula – no capital
  • 1115 – 1532     Florence, Republic – Tuscany, Italy – Florence
  • 1121 – 1269     Almohad Caliphate – Morocco – Marrakech, Seville
  • 1154 – 1242     Angevin Empire – England, France – Angers, Chinon
  • 1185 – 1422     2nd Bulgarian Empire – Balkans – Pliska, Preslav, Skopie & Ohrid
  • 1204 – 1261     Latin Empire – Thrace Asia Minor – Constantinople
  • 1226 – 1525    Tuetonic, State – Poland, Baltic states –  Marienburg, Konigsberg
  • 1229 – 1922     Ottoman Empire – Anatolia – Söğüt, Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul
  • 1238 – 1547     Moscow, Grand Duchy – Russia – Moscow
  • 1251 – 1263     Lithuania, Kingdom – Lithuania – Kernavé
  • 1282 – 1816     Naples, Kingdom -Southern Italy – Naples
  • 1330 – 1859     Wallachia, Principality – Romania – Câmpulung, Curtea de Argeș, Târgoviște, Bucharest
  • 1346 – 1371     Serbian Empire – Balkans – Skopje, Prizren
  • 1346 – 1859     Moldavian, Principality – Moldavia, Romania – Baia, Siret, Suceava, Iași 
  • 1397 – 1523    Kalmar Union – Demark, Sweden, Norway, Iceland – Roskilde, Copenhagen
  • 1402 – 1975     Spanish Empire – Iberian Peninsula – Madrid
  • 1415 – 1999     Portugueses Empire   Portugal 
  • 1525 – 1947    Prussia, Kingdom, Duchy – Germany, Poland, Baltic States – Konigsberg, Berlin
  • 1534 -present  French Colonial Empire – France – Paris
  • 1536 – 1953     Danish Colonial Empire – Denmark – Copenhagen
  • 1568 – 1975     Dutch Empire – Netherlands – Amsterdam
  • 1569 – 1795    Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine – Kraków, Warsaw 
  • 1580 – 1997     British Empire –  England – London
  • 1611 – 1721     Swedish Empire – Sweden – Stockholm
  • 1712 – 1917     Russian Empire – Russia – St. Petersburg
  • 1804 – 1815     1st French Empire – France – Paris
  • 1804 – 1867     Austrian Empire – Austria – Vienna
  • 1852 – 1870     2nd French Empire – France – Paris
  • 1867 – 1918     Austria-Hungary – Austria, Hungary – Vienna, Budapest
  • 1871 – 1918     German Empire – Germany – Berlin
  • 1881 – 1947     Romania, Kingdom – Romania – Bucharest, Iași 
  • 1885 – 1943     Italian Empire – Italy – Rome
  • 1910 – 1962    Belgian Colonial Empire – Belgium – Brussels
  • 1922 – 1991 Soviet Union – Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia.
  • 1922 – 1937     Irish Free State – Ireland – Dublin
  • 1933 – 1945     Third Reich – Germany – Berlin
Vassals or States under a high power…
  • 804 – 1296    Saxony, Duchy – Germany – Duchy of Carolingian Empire & state of Holy Roman Empire
  • 918 – 1482     Burgundy, Duchy – France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy – Dijon 
  • 1198 – 1918     Bohemia, Kingdom – Czechia, Germany, Poland – Prague – <h5;color’blue’>Vassal of the Holy Roman Empire, Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire 
  • 1224 – 1246     Empire of Thessalonica – Epirus, Thessaloniki – Thessaloniki – Vassal of the 2nd Bulgarian Empire
  • 1395 – 1796     Milan, Duchy – Northern Italy – Milan – Vassal of the Holy Roman Empire

History of War in Europe

Europe’s history is lined with wars and conflicts recorded as far back as the dawn of Greece through to the current time today. The results of some of these wars has such an impact that Europe would not be what it is today. Such pivotal events actually affected the whole world and had they had different results, we may not even recognize the world as it is today.
Had the Spanish Armanda defeated the English, Spain would have ruled the high seas and most likely gained colonies in North America. Canada’s and the US official language could be Spanish and not English. What if Germany won the first World War and not the Allies. What European countries, like Poland and Czechia would not exist but, be a part of a Germany today. Outcomes of these conflicts can change the whole course of history more they we could possibly imagine.
You can go to the following pages ➾ Battlefields & Fortifications /  ➾ Cemeteries / ➾ War and Remembrance and find war related locations to visit while in Europe. Many museums across Europe may also have exhibits that address wars and the actions that have shaped Europe’s past history and future. 

Europe Conflict Timeline…
Pre 500 BCE

c. 1104–900 BCE Dorian invasion
c. 753–351 BCE Roman–Etruscan Wars
c. 753–494 BCE Roman–Sabine wars
743–724 BCE First Messenian War

710–650 BCE Lelantine War
circa 700–601 BCE Alban war with Rome
685–668 BCE Second Messenian War
669–668 BCE Sparta–Argos War

600–265 BCE Greek–Punic Wars
595–585 BCE First Sacred War
560 BCE Second Arcadian War
540 BCE Battle of Alalia
538–522 BCE Polycrates wars

500 – 200 BCE

509–396 BCE Early Italian campaigns
500–499 BCE Persian invasion of Naxos
492–490 BCE First Persian invasion of Greece 
482–479 BCE Second Persian invasion of Greece
480–307 BCE Sicilian Wars

460–445 BCE First Peloponnesian War
449–448 BCE Second Sacred War
440–439 BCE Samian War
431–404 BCE Second Peloponnesian War
395–387 BCE Corinthian War
390–387 BCE Celtic invasion of Italia
335 BCE Alexander’s Balkan campaign

323–322 BCE Lamian War
280–275 BCE Pyrrhic War
267–261 BCE Chremonidean War 
264–241 BCE First Punic War
229–228 BCE First Illyrian War
220–219 BCE Second Illyrian War 
218–201 BCE Second Punic War
214–205 BCE First Macedonian War


200 BCE onwards

200–197 BCE Second Macedonian War
191–189 BCE Aetolian War
171–168 BCE Third Macedonian War 
135–132 BCE First Servile War
113–101 BCE Cimbrian War 
113 BCE – CE 439 Germanic Wars 
104–100 BCE Second Servile War 
91–88 BCE Social War
88–87 BCE Sulla’s first civil war

85 BCE Colchis uprising against Pontus
83–72 BCE Sertorian War
82–81 BCE Sulla’s second civil war
78 BCE Marcus Aemilius Lepidus 
73–71 BCE Third Servile War 
73–63 BCE Roman Expansion in Syria & Judea
65–63 BCE Pompey’s campaign in Iberia and Albania

63–62 BCE Second Catilinarian conspiracy
55–54 BCE Caesar’s invasions of Britain
58–51 BCE Gallic Wars 
49–45 BCE Caesar’s Civil War
44–36 BCE Sicilian revolt 
43 BCE Battle of Mutina
43–42 BCE Liberators’ civil war
41–40 BCE Perusine War
32–30 BCE Final War of the Roman Republic


1st – 10th Century CE

35–41 Iberian-Parthian war 
49–96 Roman conquest of Britain
51 Armenian–Iberian war
69 Year of the Four Emperors
69–70 Revolt of the Batavi
193 Year of the Five Emperors 
208–210 Roman invasion of Caledoni
238 Year of the Six Emperors
271–278 Colchis–Roman War
284–285 Roman civil war
306–324 Civil wars of the Tetrarchy 
350–351 Roman civil war
360–361 Roman civil war 
367–368 Great Conspiracy
376–382 Gothic War 
387–388 Roman civil war 

394 Roman civil war of 394 AD
482–484 Iberian-Persian War
526–532 Iberian War 
535–554 Gothic War 
541–562 Lazic War
582–602 Maurice’s Balkan campaigns 
c. 600–793 Frisian–Frankish wars 
650–799 Arab–Khazar wars 
680–1355 Byzantine–Bulgarian wars 
711–718 Umayyad conquest of Hispania
715–718 Frankish Civil War (715–718)
722–1492 Reconquista
735–737 Georgian-Umayyad Caliphate War 
772–804 Saxon Wars 

c. 800/862–973 Hungarian invasions of Europe
830s Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus’
839–1330 Bulgarian–Serbian Wars
854–1000 Croatian–Bulgarian wars
860 Rus’–Byzantine War
865–878 Invasion of the Great Heathen Army
907 Rus’–Byzantine War
914 Arab-Georgian War
939 Battle of Andernach
941 Rus’–Byzantine War
955 Battle of Recknitz 
970–971 Sviatoslav’s invasion of Bulgaria
982 Battle of Stilo
983 Great Slav Rising


11th Century

1002–1018 German–Polish War 
1014–1208 Byzantine–Georgian wars 
1015–1016 Pisan–Genoese expeditions to Sardinia 
1015–1016 Cnut’s invasion of England 
1018 Battle of Vlaardingen
1024 Battle of Listven
1024 Rus’–Byzantine War  

1043 Rus’–Byzantine War 
1044 Battle of Ménfő 
1048–1064 Invasion of Denmark
1050–1185 Byzantine–Norman wars 
1057 Battle of Petroe 
1060 Battle of the Theben Pass 
1066 Norwegian invasion of England
1066–1088 Norman conquest of England
1067–1194 Norman invasion of Wales 

1067 Battle on the Nemiga River 
1068 Battle of the Alta River
1073–1075 Saxon Rebellion 
1077–1088 Great Saxon Revolt 
1078 Battle of Kalavrye
1088 Rebellion of 1088
1093 Battle of Schmilau
1093 Battle of the Stugna River
1097 Battle of Gvozd Mountain
1099–1204 Georgian–Seljuk wars


12th Century

1109 Battle of Głogów
1115 Battle of Welfesholz
1121 Battle of Didgori
1126 Battle of Chlumec 
1130–1240 Civil war era in Norway
1135–54 The Anarchy

1142–1445 Swedish–Novgorodian Wars 
1144–1162 Baussenque Wars 
1159–1345 Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines
1164 Battle of Verchen

1169–1175 Norman invasion of Ireland
1173–1174 Revolt of 1173–74
1185–1204 Uprising of Asen and Peter
1198 Battle of Gisors
1198–1290 Livonian Crusade


13th Century

1201 Battle of Stellau
1202 Siege of Zadar 
1202–1214 Anglo–French War
1205 Battle of Zawichost
1208–1227 Conquest of Estonia
1209–1229 Albigensian Crusade
1211 Welsh uprising of 1211
1215–1217 First Barons’ War 
1216–1222 War of Succession of Champagne
1220–1264 Age of the Sturlungs 
1223–1241 Mongol invasion of Europe 
1223–1480 Tatar raids in Russia

1224 Siege of La Rochelle 
1227 Battle of Bornhöved 
1231–1233 Friso-Drentic War
1234–1238 Georgian-Molgol War 
1239–1245 Teltow War 
1242 Saintonge War 
1256–1258 War of the Euboeote Succession
1256–1381 Venetian–Genoese Wars 
1256–1422 Friso-Hollandic Wars
1260 Battle of Kressenbrunn
1262–1266 Scottish–Norwegian War 
1264–1267 Second Barons’ War 
1265 Battle of Isaszeg 

1275–1276 The war against Valdemar Birgersson
1276–1278 6000-mark war
1276 War of Navarra
1277–1280 Uprising of Ivaylo
1278 Battle on the Marchfeld
1282–1302 War of the Sicilian Vespers
1283–1289 War of the Limburg Succession
1288–1295 War of the Outlaws
1296–1357 Wars of Scottish Independence
1297–1305 Franco-Flemish War
1298 Battle of Göllheim


14th Century

1302 Battle of the Golden Spurs
1304–1310 The Swedish brother’s feud 
1307 Battle of Lucka
1311–1312 Rebellion of mayor Albert 
1312 Battle of Rozgony 
1321–1322 Despenser War
1321–1328 Byzantine civil war of 1321–28 
1322 Battle of Bliska
 1323–1328 Peasant revolt in Flanders 
1324 War of Saint-Sardos 
1326–1332 Polish–Teutonic War 
1333–1338 Burke Civil War 
1337–1453 Hundred Years’ War
1340–1392 Galicia–Volhynia Wars 
1340–1396 Bulgarian–Ottoman wars 

1341–1347 Byzantine civil war of 1341–47
1342–1350 Zealot’s Rebellion 
1343–1345 St. George’s Night Uprising 
1347–1352 Neapolitan campaigns of Louis the Great 
1350–1498 Wars of the Vetkopers and Schieringers 
1350–1490 Hook and Cod wars 
1356–1358 Jacquerie
1356–1375 War of the Two Peters 
1362 Battle of Helsingborg 
1362–1457 War of the Bands 
1366–1369 Castilian Civil War
1366–1526 Ottoman–Hungarian Wars
1369–1370 First Fernandine War 
1371–1913 Serbian–Ottoman wars 

1371 Battle of Baesweiler
1371–1379 War of the Guelderian Succession 
1371–1381 War of Chioggia 
1372–1373 Second Fernandine War 
1373–1379 Byzantine civil war of 1373–79
1375 Gugler War 
1375–1378 War of the Eight Saints
1381 Peasants’ Revolt 
1381–1382 Third Fernandine War
1381–1384 Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84)
1382 Harelle and Maillotins Revolt 
1381–1404 Second Georgian–Mongol War
1389 Battle of Kosovo 
1389–1392 Lithuanian Civil War (1389–92) 
1395 Battle of Nicopolis


15th Century

1400–1415 Glyndŵr Rising
1401–1429 Appenzell Wars
1407–1468 Georgian-Turkoman War 
1409–1411 Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
1410–1435 War of Slesvig 
1414 Hunger War 
1419–1434 Hussite Wars 
1422 Gollub War 
1422 Battle of Arbedo
1425–1454 Wars in Lombardy 
1431–1435 Polish–Teutonic War 
1434–1436 Engelbrekt rebellion 
1437 Budai Nagy Antal revolt
1438–1556 Russo-Kazan Wars
1440–1446 Old Zürich War
1441 Battle of Samobor 
1443–1444 Long campaign 
1445 First Battle of Olmedo 
1447–1448 Albanian–Venetian War 
1449–1450 First Margrave War
1449 Battle of Castione
1449–1453 Revolt of Ghent
1450 Jack Cade’s Rebellion

1451–1455 Navarrese Civil War
1453–1454 Morea revolt
1454–1466 Thirteen Years’ War
1455–1485 Wars of the Roses
1462–1485 Rebellion of the Remences
1462–1472 Catalan Civil War
1463–1479 Ottoman–Venetian War
1465 Battle of Montlhéry
1465–1468 Wars of Liège
1466–1469 Irmandiño Wars
1467 Second Battle of Olmedo
1467–1479 War of the Priests
1468 Waldshut War
1468–1478 Bohemian War
1470–1471 Dano-Swedish War
1470–1474 Anglo-Hanseatic War
1475–1479 War of the Castilian Succession
1477–1488 Austrian–Hungarian War
1478 Carinthian Peasant Revolt
1478 Battle of Giornico
1479 Battle of Guinegate
1482–1484 War of Ferrara

1484 Battle of Lochmaben Fair
1485–1488 Mad War
1487 Battle of Crevola
1487 War of Rovereto
1488 Battle of Sauchieburn
1492–1583 Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
1493 Battle of Krbava Field
1493–1593 Hundred Years’ Croatian–Ottoman War
1494–1559 Italian Wars 
1494-1498 King Charles VII’s war
1499-1505 King Louis XII’s war
1508-1516 League of Cambrai war
1521-1526 4th Italian war
1526-1530 League of Cognac war 
1536-1538 6th Italian war
1542-1546 7th Italian war
1551-1559 8th Italian war
1495–1497 Russo-Swedish War
1497 Cornish Rebellion of 1497
1497 Battle of Rotebro
1499 Swabian War
1499–1504 Second Italian War


16th Century

1500–1854 Lekianoba
1502–1543 Guelders Wars
1503–1505 War of the Succession of Landshut
1508–1516 War of the League of Cambrai
1509–1510 Polish–Moldavian War
1514 Poor Conrad’s Rebellion
1514 Dózsa rebellion
1514–1517 Saxon feud
1515 Slovene Peasant Revolt
1515–1523 Frisian peasant rebellion
1519–1521 Polish–Teutonic War
1520–1521 Revolt of the Comuneros
1521–1523 Revolt of the Brotherhoods
1521–1523 Swedish War of Liberation
1521–1718 Ottoman–Habsburg wars
1522–1523 Knights’ Revolt
1522–1559 Habsburg-Valois Wars
1524–1525 German Peasants’ War
1526 Revolt of Espadán

1529 First War of Kappel
1531 Second War of Kappel
1534 Silken Thomas Rebellion
1534–1535 Münster Rebellion
1534–1536 Count’s Feud
1536–1537 Pilgrimage of Grace
1540 Salt War
1542–1543 Dacke War
1543–1550 Rough Wooing
1546–1547 Schmalkaldic War
1549 Kett’s Rebellion
1549 Prayer Book Rebellion
1550 Battle of Sauðafell
1552–1555 Second Margrave War
1554 Wyatt’s rebellion
1554–1557 Russo-Swedish War
1558–1583 Livonian War
1560 Siege of Leith
1562–1598 French Wars of Religion
1563–1570 Northern Seven Years’ War
1565 Great Siege of Malta
1566 Siege of Szigetvár

1568–1570 Morisco Revolt
1568–1648 Eighty Years’ War
1569–1570 Rising of the North
1569–1573 First Desmond Rebellion
1573 Croatian–Slovene Peasant Revolt
1578 Georgian-Ottoman War
1579–1583 Second Desmond Rebellion
1580–1583 War of the Portuguese Succession
1583–1588 Cologne War
1585–1604 Anglo-Spanish War
1588–1654 Dutch–Portuguese War
1587–1588 War of the Polish Succession
1590–1595 Russo-Swedish War
1593 Battle of Sisak
1593–1606 Long Turkish War
1593–1617 Moldavian Magnate Wars
1594–1603 Nine Years’ War (Ireland)
1595–1621 Moldavian Magnate Wars
1596–1597 Cudgel War
1598–1599 War against Sigismund


17th Century

600–1629 Polish–Swedish War
1602 Savoyard escalade of Geneva
1605–1618 Polish–Muscovite War
1606–1607 Bolotnikov Rebellion
1606–1608 Zebrzydowski Rebellion
1610–1617 Ingrian War
1611–1613 Kalmar War
1615–1618 Uskok War
1618–1648 Thirty Years’ War
1618–1639 Bündner Wirren
1620–1621 Polish–Ottoman War
1625 Zhmaylo Uprising
1627–1629 Anglo-French War
1628–1631 War of the Mantuan Succession
1630 Fedorovych Uprising
1632–1634 Smolensk War

1637 Pavlyuk Uprising
1638 Ostryanyn Uprising
1639–1653 Wars of the Three Kingdoms
1640–1668 Portuguese Restoration War
1648–1657 Khmelnytsky Uprising
1651 Kostka-Napierski Uprising
1651–1986 Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War
1652–1674 Anglo-Dutch Wars
1653 Swiss peasant war of 1653
1654 First Bremian War
1654–1667 Russo–Polish War
1655–1660 Second Northern War
1656 War of Villmergen
1663–1664 Austro-Turkish War

1666 Second Bremian War
1666–1671 Polish–Cossack–Tatar War
1667–1668 War of Devolution
1670–1671 Razin’s Rebellion
1672 First Kuruc Uprising
1672–1678 Franco-Dutch War
1672–1673 Second Genoese–Savoyard War
1675–1679 Scanian War
1676–1681 Russo-Turkish War
1679 Covenanter Rebellion
1683–1684 War of the Reunions
1683–1699 Great Turkish War
1685 Monmouth Rebellion
1688–1697 Nine Years’ War
1689–1692 First Jacobite Rising


18th Century

1700 Lithuanian Civil War
1700–1721 Great Northern War 
1701–1713 War of the Spanish Succession 
 1703–1711 Rákóczi’s War of Independence 
1707–1708 Bulavin Rebellion
1712 Toggenburg War
1714–1718 Ottoman-Venetian War
1715–1716 Jacobite rising of 1715 
1716–1718 Austro-Turkish War 
1718–1720 War of the Quadruple Alliance
1722–1723 Russo-Persian War
1727–1729 Anglo-Spanish War
1733–1738 War of the Polish Succession
1735–1739 Russo-Turkish War

1737–1739 Austro-Turkish War 
1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession 
1740–1763 Silesian Wars 
1741–1743 Russo-Swedish War
1745–1746 Jacobite rising of 1745 
1756–1763 Seven Years’ War
1757 Georgian-Ottoman Battle 
1763–1864 Russo-Circassian War 
1768–1772 War of the Bar Confederation
1768–1774 Russo–Turkish War
1770 Georgian–Ottoman Battle
1770 Orlov Revolt 
1774–1775 Pugachev’s Rebellion 
1775–1783 American Revolutionary War 

1778–1779 War of the Bavarian Succession
1784 Kettle War
1784–1785 Revolt of Horea, Cloșca and Crișan 
1785 Battle of the Sunja 
1787 Dutch Patriot Revolt 
1787–1792 Russo-Turkish War
1788–1791 Austro-Turkish War
1788–1790 Russo-Swedish War 
1790 Saxon Peasants’ Revolt 
1792 Polish–Russian War of 1792
1792–1802 French Revolutionary Wars 
1794 Kościuszko Uprising 
1795 Battle of Krtsanisi 
1798 Irish Rebellion of
1798 1798 Peasants’ War


19th Century

1803 Irish Rebellion of 1803
1803–1815 Napoleonic Wars
1803-1814 War between Britain and France
1805 War of the Third Coalition
1806–1807 War of the 1809 Fourth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
1812 The Invasion of Russia
1812–1814 War of the Sixth Coalition
1815 War of the Seventh Coalition
1803 Souliote War 
1804–1813 First Serbian Uprising 
1804–1813 Russo-Persian War 
1806–1812 Russo-Turkish War 
1808–1809 Finnish War
1809 Polish–Austrian War
1815–1817 Second Serbian Uprising
1817–1864 Russian conquest of the Caucasus
1821–1832 Greek War of Independence 
1821 Wallachian uprising 
1823 French invasion of Spain 
1826–1828 Russo-Persian War 

1827 War of the Malcontents 
1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War 
1828–1834 Liberal Wars 
1830 Ten Days’ Campaign (following the Belgian Revolution) 
1830–1831 November Uprising
1831 Canut revolts 
1831–1832 Bosnian Uprising
1831–1836 Tithe War 
1832 War in the Vendée and Chouannerie of 1832 
1832 June Rebellion 
1833–1839 First Carlist War
1833–1839 Albanian Revolts of 1833–39
1843–1844 Albanian Revolt of 1843–44
1846 Galician slaughter 
1846–1849 Second Carlist War
1847 Albanian Revolt of 1847 
1847 Sonderbund War 
1848–1849 Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence
1848–1851 First Schleswig War

1848–1849 First Italian War of Independence 
1853–1856 Crimean War 
1854 Epirus Revolt of 1854 
1858 Mahtra War 
1859 Second Italian War of Independence
1861–62 Montenegrin–Ottoman War
1863–1864 January Uprising
1864 Second Schleswig War 
1866 Austro-Prussian War
1866–1869 Cretan Revolt 
1866 Third Italian War of Independence 
1867 Fenian Rising 
1870–1871 Franco-Prussian War 
1872–1876 Third Carlist War 
1873–1874 Cantonal Revolution
1875–77 Herzegovina Uprising
1876–78 Serbian–Ottoman War
1876–78 Montenegrin–Ottoman War
1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War
1878 Epirus Revolt of 1878 
1885 Serbo-Bulgarian War 
1897 Greco-Turkish War


20th Century

1903 Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising 
1904–1908 Macedonian Struggle 
1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War 
1905 Łódź insurrection 
1905 Revolution of 1905
1906–1908 Theriso revolt 1907 
1907 Romanian Peasants’ Revolt 
1910 Albanian Revolt of 1910 
1910 5 October
1910 revolution
1910 Portuguese Monarchist Civil War 
1911 Albanian Revolt of 1911
1911–1912 Italo-Turkish War 
1912–1913 Balkan Wars
1912–1913 First Balkan War
1913 Second Balkan War 
1913 Tikveš Uprising 
1913 Ohrid–Debar Uprising 
1914 Peasant Revolt in Albania
1914–1918 World War I
1916 Easter Rising
1917 Russian Revolution
1917 February Revolution
1917 July Days 
1917 Polubotkivtsi uprising 
1917 Kornilov affair 
1917 October Revolution 
1917 Junker mutiny 
1917 Kerensky–Krasnov uprising 
1917–1921 Russian Civil War 
1917–1918 Soviet-Turkish War 
1917–1921 Ukrainian War of Independence
1917–1921 Ukrainian–Soviet War 
1918–1919 Polish–Ukrainian War 
1918–1924 Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks
1918 Left SR uprising 
1921 Kronstadt rebellion 
1918–1922 Heimosodat 
1918–1920 Estonian War of Independence 
1918 Viena expedition 
1918 Aunus expedition 
1918–1920 Petsamo expeditions 
1918–1920 National revolt of Ingrian Finns 
1921–1922 East Karelian Uprising 
1918–1925 Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War 
1918–1920 North Russia Intervention
1918–1922 Siberian Intervention 
1918 Georgian–Armenian War 
1918–1920 Georgian–Ossetian conflic
1918–1919 Georgian-Russian conflict over Sochi 
1918–1920 Armenian–Azerbaijani War 
1918–1920 Latvian War of Independence 
1918–1920 Lithuanian Wars of Independence 
1918–1919 Lithuanian–Soviet War 

1919 Lithuanian War of Independence (War against the Bermontians) 
1920 Polish–Lithuanian War1919–1921 Polish–Soviet War 
1921 Georgian–Russian War 
1924 Georgian Uprising against Soviet U
nion 
1919–1920 Revolutions and interventions in Hungary
1918–1919 Hungarian–Romanian War 
1919 Sejny Uprising
1919 Khotin Uprising 1918 Georgian–Turkish War
1918–1919 Austro-Slovene conflict in Carinthia 
1918–1958 Polish–Czechoslovak border conflicts
1919 Polish-Czech war for Teschen Silesia 
1918–1919 German Revolution
1918–1919 Greater Poland Uprising
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence
1919–1922 Greco-Turkish War
1918–1921 Franco-Turkish War
1920 Turkish–Armenian War 
1919–1923 Royalist and separatist revolts
1919 Christmas Uprising
1919–1920 Italo-Yugoslav War
1919–1920 Czechoslovakia–Hungary War
1919–1921 Silesian Uprisings
1919 First Silesian Uprising
1920 Second Silesian Uprising
1921 Third Silesian Uprising 
1919–1922 Irish War of Independence 
1920 Husino rebellion
1920 Vlora War 
1920 Kapp Putsch 
1920 Ruhr Uprising
1920 Slutsk Defence Action 
1920–1924 Biennio Rosso 
1921 Uprising in West Hungary 
1921 February Uprising 
1922–1923 Irish Civil War
1923 Corfu incident 
1923 September Uprising 
1923 Klaipėda Revolt 
1923 Leonardopoulos–Gargalidis coup d’état attempt 
1924 1924 Estonian coup d’état attempt
1924 August Uprising 
1925 Incident at Petrich 1932 Mäntsälä rebellion 
1933 Casas Viejas incident 
1933 Anarchist uprising in Spain (1933) 
1934 Asturian miners’ strike of 1934
1934 Austrian Civil War
1935 Greek coup d’état attempt 

1936–1939  Spanish Civil War 
1938 Greek coup d’état attempt
1939 Hungarian Invasion of the Carpatho-Ukraine
1939–1965 Spanish Maquis
1939–1945 World War II
1944–1956 Guerrilla war in the Baltic states 
1945–1949 Greek Civil War 
1947–1962 Romanian anti-communist resistance movement 1953 Uprising in East Germany 
1956 Uprising in Poznań
1956 Hungarian Revolution
1956–1962 Operation Harvest 
1958 Opération Corse
1958 First Cold War
1959–2011 Basque conflict 
1967 Greek coup d’état 
1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
1968–1998 The Troubles
1970–1984 Unrest in Italy 
1972 Bugojno group
1972–1973 Second Cod War 
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus
1974 Carnation Revolution 
1975–1976 Third Cod War 
1975 Portuguese coup d’état attempt 
1976–present Corsican Insurgency 
1981 Spanish coup d’état attempt 
1988–1994 Nagorno-Karabakh War 
1989 Romanian Revolution
1990–1991 Soviet attacks on Lithuanian border posts
1991 January Events 
1991 The Barricades 
1991 Ten-Day War (Slovenia)
1991–1992 Georgian war against Russo-Ossetian alliance
1991–1993 Georgian Civil War 
1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence 
1992 Transnistria War 
1992 East Prigorodny Conflict
1992–1993 First Georgian war against Russo-Abkhazian alliance
1992–1995 Bosnian War
1993 Cherbourg incident 
1993 Russian constitutional crisis 
1994–1996 First Chechen War 
1995–1996 Imia/Kardak military crisis 
1997–1998 Cyprus Missile Crisis
1997 Albanian civil war of 1997
1998–1999 Kosovo War
1998–present Dissident Irish Republican campaign
1998 Second Georgian war against Russian-Abkhazian alliance
1999 War of Dagestan
1999–2009 Second Chechen War
1999–2001 Insurgency in the Preševo Valley


21st Century

2001 Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia 
2002 Perejil Island crisis
2004–2013 Unrest in Kosovo
2008 unrest in Kosovo
2011–2013 North Kosovo crisis

2004 Georgia, Adjara crisis
2006 Georgia, Kodori crisis
2007–2015 Civil war in Ingushetia
2008 Russia–Georgia war 
2009–2017 Insurgency in the North Caucasus

2013–2014 Euromaidan and pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
2014 Crimean crisis
2014–present War in Donbass
2015 Kumanovo clashes