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About Europe

Geography

The Matterhorn Zermatt, Switzerland

Europe is one of seven continents. It is the second smallest continent in size with only Oceania being smaller. Europe is a large peninsula that extends out westerly from the Eurasia continent land mass. It is divided from Asia on the east by the Ural Mountains and bordered on the north by the Artic Sea, on the west by the Atlantic ocean, on the south primarily by the Mediterranean Sea, the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea.

It is actually a collection of peninsulas with the two primary ones being the Fennoscandia in the north separated from the main European peninsula by the Baltic sea in the south. The Fennoscandia has two major peninsulas, the Scandinavian and Kola. It is bounded on the north by the Artic Ocean, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and on the east by the White sea, gulf of Finland and Russia. 

The primary European peninsula is bounded on the north by the Baltic sea, on the west by the Atlantic ocean, on the east by the Ural mountains and in the south the Mediterranean sea separates it from Africa. It as threes major peninsulas, Iberia, Italy and the Balkan. Even these peninsulas have smaller ones that form the geographical shape of Europe.

This extraordinary shape of seas and land allowed early civilizations easy navigation between one settlement and others, allowing for easier communication and trade which spurred growth over the continent between its peoples. It isn’t surprising that over the centuries, ethnic peoples from the east in Asia, migrated west to the European continent

Peninsulas of Europe and the countries…

PeninsulaEntirely WithinPartially In
Balkan🇦🇱 Albania, 🇧🇬 Bulgaria,  🇧🇦Bosnia Herzegovina, 🇲🇪Montenegro,  🇲🇰 North Macedonia🇭🇷 Croatia, 🇬🇷 Greece, 🇮🇹 Italy,  🇷🇴Romania,  🇷🇸 Serbia,  🇸🇮 Slovenia
Chalkidiki🇬🇷 Greece
Gallipoli🇹🇷 Turkey
Istria🇭🇷 Croatia, 🇸🇮 Slovenia
Peloponenese🇬🇷 Greece
Contentin🇫🇷 France
Crimea🇺🇦 Ukraine
Iberian 🇬🇮 Gibraltar,  🇵🇹 Portugal,  🇪🇸 Spain🇦🇩 Andorra
Italian 🇻🇦Holy See,  🇸🇲 San Marino🇮🇹I Italy
Jutland🇩🇰Denmark 🇩🇪Germany
Kanin🇷🇺Russia
Fennoscandian🇷🇺Russia
Kola🇷🇺Russia
Scandinavian🇳🇴 Norway, 🇸🇪 Sweden

In relation to cities in the United States, one of our northernmost cities, Seattle lies at 47° latitude north, compared to London at 51°and Paris 48° north. One of continental Europe’s northernmost major cities is Helsinki at 59°north.

In the south Austin at 30° north lies parallel with Cairo, Egypt and Miami below that at 25° north. View the map and table to compare the equivalent latitudes of European cities to that of the United States. 

Click on Map to enlarge

Latitude comparison of European cities to US cities. Table reads north to south latitudes.

Latitude comparison of European cities to US cities. Table reads north to south latitudes. You may sort the table below by city, country or latitude.

City / LocationCountryLatitude
Cape Fligely:Extreme north point of Europe🇳🇴 Norway81° 50' N
Pt. BarrowNothernmost point of US🇺🇸 Alaska71° 23' N
North Cape:Northernmost mainland of Europe 🇳🇴 Norway71° 10' N
Reykjavik🇮🇸 Iceland64° 4' N
Anchorage🇺🇸 Alaska61° 13' N
Olso🇳🇴 Norway59° 55' N
St. Petersburg🇷🇺 Russia59° 56' N
Stockholm🇸🇪 Stockholm59° 20′ N
Edinburgh🇬🇧 UK 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿 Scotland55° 55′ N
Moscow🇷🇺 Russia55° 45′ N
Copenhagen🇩🇰 Denmark55° 40′ N
Dublin🇮🇪 Ireland53° 20′ N
Berlin🇩🇪 Germany52° 30′ N
Amsterdam🇳🇱 Netherlands52° 22′ N
Warsaw🇲🇨 Poland52° 14′ N
London🇬🇧 UK 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 England51° 32′ N
Brussels🇧🇪 Belgium50° 50′ N
Prague🇨🇿 Czechia50° 5′ N
Kraków🇲🇨 Poland50° 03′ N
Paris🇫🇷 France48° 48′ N
Munich🇩🇪 Germany48° 8′ N
Vienna🇦🇹 Austria48° 14′ N
Zürich🇨🇭 Switzerland47° 21′ N
Seattle🇺🇸 Washington47° 37′ N
Budapest🇭🇺 Hungary47° 30′ N
Portland🇺🇸 Oregon45° 31′ N
Milan🇮🇹 Italy45° 27′ N
Venice🇮🇹 Italy45° 26′ N
Minneapolis🇺🇸 Minnesota44° 58′ N
Florence🇮🇹 Italy43° 47 N
Dubrovnik🇭🇷 Croatia42° 38′ N
Boston🇺🇸 Massachusetts42° 21′ N
Rome🇮🇹 Italy41° 54′ N
Chicago🇺🇸 Illinois41° 50′ N
Barcelona🇪🇸 Spain41° 23′ N
Istanbul🇹🇷 Turkey41° 00′ N
New York🇺🇸 New York40° 47′ N
Madrid🇪🇸 Spain40° 26′ N
Denver🇺🇸 Colorado39° 44′ N
Washington🇺🇸 D.C.38° 43′ N
Lisbon🇵🇹 Portugal38° 43′ N
Athens🇬🇷 Greece37° 59′ N
San Francisco🇺🇸 California37° 47′ N
Punta de TarifaSouthern Mainland of Europe 🇪🇸 Spain36 00′ N
Las Vegas🇺🇸 Nevada36° 10′ N
Los Angeles🇺🇸 California34° 3′ N
Gavdos:Extreme south point of Europe 🇬🇷 Greece34° 50′ N
Atlanta🇺🇸 Georgia33° 45′ N
Phoenix🇺🇸 Arizona33° 27′ N
Dallas🇺🇸 Texas32° 46′ N
New Orleans🇺🇸 Louisiana29° 57′ N
Houston🇺🇸 Texas29° 45′ N
Miami🇺🇸 Florida29° 45′ N
Honolulu🇺🇸 Hawaii21° 18′ N
Ka Lae: Southernmost Point of US
🇺🇸 Hawaii18° 55′ N

Geographical Features…

The total size of the land mass of earth is 148,429,00 Sq. Km (75,308,738 sq. miles). Europe is one of the smallest continents in size, only making up 6.7 % of earth’s total land mass. 

ContinentArea Sq. Km Area Sq. Miles% of Earth 
Asia w. Middle East44,579,00017,212,00030.0 %
Africa30,221,53211,608,59920.3 %
North America24,709,0009,540,00016.3 %
South America17,840,0006,890,00012.0 %
Antartica13,209,0005,400,0008.9 %
Europe10,180,0003,930,0006.7 %
Australia & Oceania8.525,9893,291,9035.2 %
Source: United Nations Department of Economic & Social Affairs July 2017

European Countries by Area…

Listed below is the total land area for European countries and dependents . You may sort the table below by alpha country name, size or rank. Source: Central Intelligence Agency 2017.

CountryLand Area (km2)Land (mi2)Eur. Rank World RankWater Area (km2)
🇷🇺 Russia- Europe only16,377,742
(3,992,500)
6,323,481
(1542512)
11750,500
🇹🇷 Turkey769,632297,15723718,170
🇫🇷 France549,970212,3443431,530
🇺🇦 Ukraine579,330223,68044624,200
🇪🇸 Spain498,980192,6575526,390
🇸🇪 Sweden410,335158,43165639,960
🇩🇪 Germany348,672134,6237638,350
🇫🇮 Finland303,815117,30386534,330
🇳🇴 Norway304,282117,48396819,520
🇲🇨 Poland304,255117,47310708,430
🇮🇹 Italy294,140113,56811727,200
🇬🇧 United Kingdom241,93093,40912801,680
🇷🇴 Romania238,39192,04313838,500
🇧🇾 Belarus207,60080,15414864,700
🇬🇷 Greece131,95750,94815971,310
🇧🇬 Bulgaria110,87942,810161052,390
🇮🇸 Iceland103,000 39,768171082,750
🇭🇺 Hungary93,02835,918181103,420
🇵🇹 Portugal92,09035,55619111620
🇦🇹 Austria83,87132,382201141,426
🇨🇿 Czechia78,876 30,454211161,620
🇷🇸 Serbia77,47429,912221170
🇮🇪 Ireland70,27327,132231201,390
🇱🇹 Lithuania65,300 25,212241232,620
🇱🇻 Latvia64,58924,937251242,340
🇳🇴 Svalbard61,02223,56126
🇭🇷 Croatia56,59421,85126127620
🇧🇦 Bosnia Herzegovina51,19719,7672712910
🇸🇰 Slovakia49,03518,93228131930
🇪🇪 Estonia45,22817,462291332,840
🇩🇰 Denmark43,09416,63830134660
🇳🇱 Netherlands41,54316,039311357,650
🇨🇭 Switzerland41,22715,917321361,280
🇲🇩 Moldova33,85113,06933140960
🇧🇪 Belgium30,52811,78634141250
🇦🇱 Albania28,74811,099351451,350
🇲🇰 North Macedonia25,7139,92736150280
🇸🇮 Slovenia20,2737,82737155122
🇲🇪 Montenegro13,8125,33238162360
🇽🇰 Kosovo10,8774,199391690
🇨🇾 Cyprus9,2513,5714017110
🇱🇺 Luxembourg2,586998411790
🇫🇴 Faroe Islands1,393538420
🇮🇲 Isle of Man572221430
🇦🇩 Andorra468181441960
🇳🇴 Jan Mayen377146450
🇲🇹 Malta316122462080
🇱🇮 Liechtenstein16062472190
🇯🇪 Jersey11645480
🇬🇬 Guernsey7830490
🇸🇲 San Marino6124502290
🇬🇮 Gibraltar6.82.6510
🇲🇨 Monaco1.980.76522540
🇻🇦 Holy See - Vatican0.440.169532570
Islands of Europe…

Some Islands in Europe have played a significant part in its history. Of those Great Britain, Ireland, Sicily, Crete, Rhodes have contributed immensely to the advancement of European culture. Islands where also strategically importance for transportation and defense. Today many of those islands are tourists havens for the sun worshipers and social crowds.  

Island NameCountrySq. Miles
Great Britain🇬🇧 United Kingdom80,823
Iceland🇮🇸 Iceland39,315
Ireland🇮🇪 Ireland 🇬🇧 UK32,595
Severny Island🇷🇺 Russia18,177
Spitsbergen🇳🇴 Norway-Svalbard15,051
Yuzhny Island🇷🇺 Russia12,836
Sicily🇮🇹 Italy9,908
Sardinia🇮🇹 Italy9,247
Nordaustlandet🇳🇴 Norway-Svalbard5,586
Cyprus🇨🇾 Cyprus3,565
Corsica🇫🇷 France3,375
Crete🇬🇷 Greece3,220
Zealand🇩🇰 Denmark2,715
Edgeøya🇳🇴 Norway-Svalbard1,959
Kolguyev Island🇷🇺 Russia1,918
North Jutlandic🇩🇰 Denmark1,809
Eubiea🇬🇷 Greece1,431
Majorca🇪🇸 Spain1,416
Vaygach Island 🇷🇺 Russia1,285
Funen🇩🇰 Denmark1,153
Zemlya Georga🇷🇺 Russia1,089
Saaremaa🇪🇪 Estonia1,032
Wilczek Land🇷🇺 Russia851
Hinnøya🇳🇴 Norway849
Isle of Lewis🇬🇧 United Kingdom805
Tenerife🇪🇸 Spain775
Isle of Skye🇬🇧 United Kingdom641
Lesbos🇬🇷 Greece634
Soisalo🇫🇮 Finland631
Fuerteventura🇪🇸 Spain631
Senja🇳🇴 Norway610
Graham Bell🇷🇺 Russia601
Gran Canaria🇪🇸 Spain590
Rhodes🇬🇷 Greece540
Öland🇸🇪 Sweden520
Barentsøya🇳🇴 Norway-Svalbard497
Lolland🇩🇰 Denmark480
Alexandra Land🇷🇺 Russia423
Sääminginsalo🇫🇮 Finland413
Gallya🇷🇺 Russia405
Hiiumaa🇪🇪 Estonia398
Mainland🇬🇧 United Kingdom374
Europe’s Seas…

As previously mentioned the European continent is a western extension of the Eurasia landmass surrounded by water. This shape creates thousands upon thousands of coast lines with shelter bays ideal for harbors and cities. Its coastlines have panoramic views and miles of beaches for enjoyment. For information see our pages on Beaches, Coastlines, Lakes and Rivers

Surrounding SeaCountries
Adriatic Sea🇦🇱Albania, 🇭🇷Croatia, 🇮🇹Italy, 🇲🇪Montenegro, 🇸🇮Slovenia
Aegean Sea🇬🇷Greece, 🇹🇷Turkey
Alboran Sea🇪🇸Spain
Atlantic Ocean🇫🇷France, 🇮🇸Iceland, 🇮🇪Ireland, 🇳🇴Norway, 🇵🇹Portugal, 🇪🇸Spain, 🇬🇧United Kingdom
Balearic Sea🇪🇸Spain
Baltic Sea🇩🇰Denmark, 🇪🇪Estonia, 🇫🇮Finland, 🇩🇪Germany, 🇱🇻Latvia, 🇱🇹 Lithuania, 🇵🇱Poland, 🇷🇺Russia, 🇸🇪Sweden
Black Sea🇧🇬Bulgaria, 🇷🇴Romania, 🇷🇺Russia, 🇺🇦Ukraine
Barents Sea🇷🇺Russia
Celtic Sea🇫🇷France, 🇮🇪Ireland, 🇬🇧United Kingdom
Ionian Sea🇬🇷Greece, 🇮🇹Italy
Levantine Sea🇨🇾Cyprus, 🇹🇷Turkey
Ligurian Sea🇫🇷France, 🇮🇹Italy, 🇲🇨Monaco
Mediterranean SeaSubdivisions – Adriatic, Aegean, Alboran, Balearic, Ionian, Levantine, Ligurian, Myrtoan, Crete, Sicily, Thracian and Tyrrhenian 
Myrtoan Sea🇬🇷Greece
Norwegian Sea🇮🇸Iceland, 🇳🇴Norway
North Sea🇩🇰Denmark, 🇩🇪Germany, 🇳🇱Netherlands, 🇬🇧United Kingdom
Sea of Azov🇷🇺Russia, 🇺🇦Ukraine
Sea of Crete🇬🇷Greece
Sea of Marmara🇹🇷Turkey
Sea of Sicily🇮🇹Italy, 🇲🇹Malta
Thracian Sea🇬🇷Greece
Tyrrhenian Sea🇮🇹Italy
Wadden Sea🇩🇰Denmark, 🇩🇪Germany, 🇳🇱Netherlands
Other Water Features…
Water Body NameCountries
Bay of Biscay🇫🇷 France 🇪🇸 Spain
Bosporus Strait🇹🇷 Turkey
Bristol Channel🇬🇧 United Kingdom
Dardanelles Strait🇹🇷 Turkey
English Channel🇫🇷 France 🇬🇧 United Kingdom
Gulf of Bothnia🇫🇮 Finland 🇸🇪 Sweden
Gulf of Corinth🇬🇷 Greece
Gulf of Finland🇫🇮 Finland 🇪🇪 Estonia 🇷🇺 Russia
Gulf of Riga🇱🇻 Latvia 🇪🇪 Estonia
Gulf of Venice🇮🇹 Italy 🇭🇷 Croatia 🇸🇮 Slovania
Kattergat (bay)🇩🇰 Denmark 🇳🇴 Norway
Saint George’s Channel🇮🇪 Ireland 🇬🇧 United Kingdom
Skagerrak (gulf)🇩🇰 Denmark 🇳🇴 Norway 🇸🇪 Sweden
Strait of Dover🇫🇷 France 🇬🇧 United Kingdom
Strait of Gibraltar🇬🇮 Gibraltar 🇪🇸 Spain
Strait of Messina🇮🇹 Italy
Strait of Otranto🇦🇱 Albania 🇮🇹 Italy
Strait of Sicily🇲🇹 Malta 🇮🇹 Italy
Bay of Biscay France, Spain
Bosporus Strait Turkey
Bristol Channel United Kingdom
Dardanelles Strait Turkey
English Channel France, United Kingdom
Gulf of Bothnia Finland, Sweden
Gulf of Corinth Greece
Gulf of Finland Finland, Estonia, Russia
Gulf of Riga Latvia, Estonia
Gulf of Venice Italy, Croatia, Slovenia
Kattergat (bay) Denmark, Sweden
Saint George’s Channel Ireland, United Kingdom
Skagerrak (gulf) Denmark, Norway, Sweden
Strait of Dover France, United Kingdom
Strait of Gibraltar Spain
Strait of Messina Italy
Strait of Otranto Albania, Italy
Strait of Sicily Malta, Italy
Europe's Mountain Ranges...

For more information see our Mountain page.

Tripoints...
Tri-points…

Tri-points are where the borders of three countries meet at one point. Some of these locations are very remote while others very accessible. The easy to get locations have monuments or markers where one can have a little fun by standing in three countries at one time.

Name/TripointMarkedLocationCountry Borders
ALGRMK
NoIn Lake Prespa , boat accessible onlyAlbania-Greece-Macedonia
ALMERS
NoConsiderable drive and difficult hike from Plav, ME or Junik, RSAlbania-Montenegro-Serbia
Arnoldstein-ATITSI
YesEasy drive or hike from Arnoldstein, ATAustria-Italy-Slovenia
North -ATCHLIN
YesShort drive or hike from Ruggell, LIAustria, Liechtenstein-Switzerland
South-ATCHLIS
YesNo easy access, difficult climb located at 7739 ft on top of Mt. NaafkopfAustria, Liechtenstein-Switzerland
ATCZDE
YesRemote drive and hike from Neureichenau, Germany or Oberschwarzberg, ATAustria-Czech Republic-Germany
ATCZSK
NoDrive from Hohenau an der March, AT and short hike to confluence of Dyje & Moravy riversAustria-Czech Republic-Slovakia
ATHUSK
YesShort drive Bratislava, SKAustria-Hungary-Slovakia
BAHRRS
 In the middle of Sava river ‘ downstream from Brčko, BA. Boat accessible only.Bosnia Hercegovina-Croatia-Serbia
BAMERS
NoDrive from Cajniče, BA, long hike from border crossing to PejkaBosnia Hercegovina-Montenegro-Serbia
BGGRMK
YesDrive from Platanakia, GR & long hike & climb to site.Bulgaria-Greece-Macedonia
BGGRTK
YesShort walk from Bugarian/Turkish border crossing at Kaptian Andreeevo, BGBulgaria-Greece-Turkey
BYLTLV
YesDrive from Turmantas, LTBelarus-Latvia-Lithuania
BYLTPL
YesDrive from Zelwa,PLBelarus-Lithuania-Poland
BYLVRU
YesEasy access from Latvia side- south of Zilupe, LVBelarus-Latvia-Russia
BYPLUA
NoBoundry in the Bug River short drive from Wlodawa, PLBelarus-Poland-Ukraine
CZPLSK
YesEasy drive & short walk from Hrčava, CZCzech Republic-Poland-Slovakia
Dreiländereck-CHDEFR
YesEasy walk access in Klybeck, CH, actual border in Rhine River.France-Germany-Switzerland
Europadenkmal-BEDELU
YesEasy drive from Ouren, LU, actual border in Our River on footbridge.Belgium-Germany-Luxembourg
EELVRU
NoDrive from Aluksne, LT and a short walkEstonia-Latvia-Russia
HRHURS
NoShort drive & from Hercegzántó, HU or Backi Breg, RS and hike to river.Croatia-Hungary-Serbia
HRHUSI
NoDrive & Hike from Novakovec, HR. Boundry in Spust RiverCroatia-Hungary-Slovenia
HURORS
YesShort drive from Beba Veche, RomaniaHungary-Romania-Serbia
Krzemieniec-PLSKUA 
 YesDrive from Nová Sedlica, SK & long hike to sitePoland-Slovakia-Ukarine
Lake Constance-ATCHDE
NoLake has easy access, actual border is in the lake, boat accessible onlyAustria-Germany-Switzerland
LTPLRU
 Drive from Zytkiejmy, PL & short walkLithuania-Poland-Russia
Muotkavaara-FINORU
Yes5km hike access from Grensefoss, NOFinland-Norway-Russia
Mt. Dolent-CHFRIT
NoIn-accssible, lies at 3,749 metres, nw of the summit of Mont DolentFrance-Italy-Switzerland
Schengen-DEFRLU
YesEasy walk access in Schengen, LU, actual border in Moselle, River.France-Germany-Luxembourg
Three-Country Cairn-FINOSE
YesAccessible drive from Skibotn, NO or Kilpisjärvi, FIFinland-Norway-Sweden
Vaalserberg-BEDENL
YesEasy drive from Vaalserquartier, NL or Gemmenich, BEBelgium-Germany-Netherlands
Zittau-CZDEPL
 YesEasy drive or hike from Zittau, DE, actual border in Lausiter Neisse RiverCzech Republic-Germany-Poland