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About Europe

Famous Europeans

The following list will contain many names you have recognized because their lives still impact us today as Americans. A group of them deeply influenced the founding fathers and they way they would structure our government and constitution.  

BCE

c. 8th century BC Homer – Greek Author
630 BC – 570 BC Sappho – Greek Poet
570 BC – 495 BC Pythagoras – Greek Mathematician
540 BC – 480 BC Leonidas I – King of Sparta
523 BC- 456 BC Aeschylus – Greek Tragedian Writer
497 BC – 406 BC Sophocles – Greek Tragedian Writer
495 BC – 429 BC- Pericles – Greek Statesman
484 BC – 425 BC Herodotus – Greek Historian
480 BC- 406 BC Euripides – Greek Tragedian Writer
469 BC – 399 BC Socrates – Greek Philosopher
460 BC – 370 BC Democritus – Greek Philosopher
460 BC – 370 BC Hippocrates – Greek Physician
423 BC – 348 BC Plato – Greek Philosopher
384 BC – 322 BC Aristotle – Greek Philosopher
382 BC – 336 BC Philip II – King of Macedon, father of Alexander
341 BC – 270 BC Epicurus – Greek Philosopher
356 BC – 323 BC Alexander the Great – King of Macedon
325 BC – 270 BC Euclid – Greek Mathematician
287 BC- 212 BC Archimedes – Greek Engineer, Mathematician, Astronomer
111 BC – 71 BC Spartacus –Thracian Gladiator
107 BC – 44 BC Cicero – Roman Statesman, Lawyer, Scholar, Philosopher
100 BC- 44 BC Julius Caesar – Roman Dictator
70 BC – 19 BC Virgil – Roman Poet
65 BC – 8 BC Horace – Roman Poet
64 BC – 12 BC Marcus Agrippa – Roman General & Statesman
63 BC – 14 AD Augustus Caesar – Roman Emperor
43 BC – 18 AD Ovid = Roman Poet
42 BC – 37 AD Tiberius – Roman Emperor

1st – 9th Centuries

9 – 79 Vespasian – Roman Emperor
53 – 117 Trajan – Roman Emperor
76 – 138 Hadrian – Roman Emperor
90 – 168 Ptolemy – Greco Egyptian Writer
121 – 180 Marcus Aurelius – Roman Emperor
129 – 200 Galen – Greek Physician
244 – 311 Diocletian – Roman Emperor
272 – 337 Constantine the Great – Roman Emperor
354 – 430 St. Augustine – Influential Christian Writer
390 – 461 St. Patrick – Bishop of Ireland
406 – 453 Attila the Hun – Hun Ruler
466 – 511 Clovis I – King of the Franks
480 – 543 St. Benedict of Nursia – Benedictine Order founder, Patron Saint of Europe  
482 – 565 Justinian I – Byzantine Emperor
747 – 814 Charlemagne – Holy Roman Emperor
848 – 899 Alfred the Great – King of the Anglo-Saxons

10th Century

907 – 935 Wenceslas I – Duke of Bohemia
912 – 973 Otto the Great – German Holy Roman Emperor
950 – 1003 Eric the Red – Norse Explorer
958 – 1015 Vladimir the Great –Grand Prince of Kiev
940 – 996 Hugh Capet – King of the Franks
970 – 1020 Lief Erikson – Norse Explorer
990 – 1035 Cnut the Great – King of Denmark

11th Century

1030 – 1079 Stanisław of Szczepanów – Polish Bishop
1079 – 1142 Peter Abelard – French medieval Philosopher & Theologian
1043 – 1099 Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) – Castilian Knight

12th Century

1118 – 1170 Thomas Becket – English Martyr
1122 – 1190 Frederick I “Barbarossa” – German Holy Roman Emperor
1122 – 1204 Eleanor of Aquitaine – Queen of France
1133- 1189 Henry II – English Plantagenet King
1128 – 1201 Absalon – Danish Bishop
1181 – 1226 Francis of Assisi – Italian Catholic Friar

13th Century

1221 – 1274 St. Bonaventure –  Italian Medieval Franciscan, Theologian and Philosopher
1225 – 1274 Tomas Aquinas – Italian Priest
1254 – 1324 Marco Polo – Venetian Merchant Traveller
1265 – 1326 Dante Alighieri – Italian Poet
1267 – 1337 Giotto di Bondone – Italian Early Renaissance Painter
1272 – 1305 William Wallace – Scottish Landowner
1274 – 1329 Robert the Bruce – King of Scots

14th Century

1310 – 1370 Casimir III the Great – King of Poland
1316 – 1378 Charles IV “Wenceslaus” –  Bohemian Holy Roman Emperor
1320 – 1384 John Wycliffe – English Philosopher
1340 – 1400 Geoffrey Chaucer – English Poet
1360 – 1415 Jan Hus – Czech Priest
1377 – 1446 Filippo Brunelleschi – Italian Architect
1378 – 1455 Lorenzo Ghiberti – Italian Early Renaissance Sculptor
1386 – 1466 Donato Bardi “Donatello” – Italian Early Renaissance Sculptor
1389 – 1464 Cosimo de Medici – Italian Banker
1390 – 1441 Jan van Eyck – Netherlandish Northern Renaissance Painter
1394 – 1460 Prince Henry the Navigator – Portuguese Politician
1398 – 1468 Johannes Gutenberg – German Printer

15th Century

1414 – 1431 Joan d’Arc – French Heroine
1430 – 1515 Giovanni Bellini – Italian High Renaissance Painter
1432 – 1482 Mehmed II “The Conqueror” – Ottoman Sultan
1445 – 1510 Sandro Botticelli – Italian Early Renaissance Painter
1450 – 1499 John Cabot – Italian Navigator for England
1450 – 1500 Bartolomeu Diaz – Portuguese Explorer
1451 – 1506 Christopher Columbus – Italian Explorer for Spain
1451 – 1504 Isabella I – Queen of Castile & Leon
1452 – 1516 Ferdinand II – King of Aragon
1452 – 1519 Leonardo Da Vinci – Italian High Renaissance Painter & Scientist
1443 – 1490 Matthias Corvinus – King of Hungary
1491 – 1547 Henry VIII – King of England
1454 – 1512 Amerigo Vespucci – Italian Explorer
1469 – 1492 Lorenzo de Medici – Italian Statesman & Magnate
1460 – 1520 Vasco de Gama – Portuguese Explorer
1469 – 1536 Erasmus – Dutch Philosopher & Christian Scholar
1469 – 1492 Lorenzo de Medici – Italian Statesman & Magnate
1471 – 1529 Albrecht Dürer – German Northern Renaissance Painter & Engraver
1473 – 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus – Polish Mathematician
1474 – 1521 Juan Ponce de Léon – Spanish Explorer
1475 – 1519 Vasco de Balboa – Spanish Explorer
1475 – 1564 Michelangelo Buonarroti – Italian High Renaissance Painter & Sculptor
1478 – 1535 Thomas More – English Philosopher
1478 – 1541 Francisco Pizarro – Spanish Conquistador
1480 – 1538 Albrecht Altdorfer – German Northern Renaissance Painter & Engraver
1480 – 1521 Ferdinand Magellan – Portuguese Explorer
1483 – 1520 Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino “Raphael” – Italian High Renaissance Painter
1483 – 1546 Martin Luther – German Priest & Reformer
1485 – 1547 Hrnán Cortés – Spanish Conquistador
1488 – 1576  Tiziano Vecellio “Titian” – Italian High Renaissance Painter
489 – 1588 Mimar Sinan – Ottoman Architect
1491 – 1551 Jacques Cartier – French Explorer
1494 – 1536 William Tyndale – English Protestant Reformer
1494 – 1566 Sulieman I ( The Magnificent) –  Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
1496 – 1542 Hernando de Soto – Spanish Conquistador

16th Century

1500 – 1571 Benvenuto Cellini – Italian Mannerist Sculptor & Goldsmith
1500 – 1558 Charles V – Holy Roman Emperor
1503 – 1566 Nostradamus – French Apothecal & Seer
1508 – 1580 Andrea Palladio – Venetian Architect
1509 – 1564 John Calvin – French Theologian
1510 – 1554 Francisco de Coronado – Spanish Conquistador
1527 – 1598 Philip II – King of Spain
1530 – 1584 Ivan the Terrible – Grand Prince of Moscow
1533 – 1603 Elizabeth I – Queen of England
1540 – 1597 Sir Francis Drake – English Privateer
1541 – 1614 El Greco – Greek born Spanish Mannerist Painter
1547 – 1616 Miguel de Cervantes – Spanish Novelist
1552 – 1618 Sir Walter Raleigh – English Writer & Explorer
1561 – 1626 Sir Francis Bacon – English Lord Chancellor
1564 – 1616 William Shakespeare – English Poet
1564 – 1642 Galileo Galilei – Italian Astronomer
1565 – 1611 Henry Hudson – English Explorer
1571 – 1610 Michelangelo Merisi “Caravaggio” – Italian Baroque Painter
1571 – 1630 Joannes Kepler – German Mathematician
1574 – 1635 Samuel de Champlain – French Navigator
1577 – 1640 Peter Paul Rubens – Flemish Baroque Painter
1578 – 1657 William Harvey –  English Physician
1588 – 1679 Thomas Hobbes – English Philosopher
1593 – 1656 Artemisia Gentileschi – Italian Baroque Painter
1594 – 1632 Gustav II Adolphus – King of Sweden 
1596 – 1650 Rene Descartes – French  Philosopher
1598 – 1642 Jean Nicolet – French Explorer
1598 – 1680 Gianlorenzo Bernini – Italian Baroque Painter & Sculptor
1599 – 1641 Antoon van Dyck – Flemish Baroque Painter 
1599 – 1658 Oliver Cromwell – English Parliamentarian & Military Leader
1599 – 1660 Diego Velázquez – Spanish Baroque Painter

17th Century

1606 – 1669 Rembrandt van Rijn – Dutch Baroque Painter & Engraver
1608 – 1674 John Milton – English Poet
1621 – 1695 Jean de La Fontaine – French Fabulist
1622 – 1673 Moliére – French Playwright
1623 – 1662 Blaise Pascal –  French Mathematician, Physicist, Inventor, Writer & Theologian
1629 – 1696 John III Sobieski –  King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania
1638 – 1715 Louis XIV “the Sun King” – King of France
1632 – 1675 Johannes Vermeer – Dutch Baroque Painter
1632 – 1677 Baruch Spinoza – Dutch Philosopher
1632 – 1704 John Locke – English Philosopher
1632 – 1723 Christopher Wren – English Architect
1632 – 1723 Antony van Leeunwenhoek – Dutch Chemist & Biologist
1637 – 1675 Jaqcues Marquette – French Explorer & Jesuit Missionary
1640 – 1705 Leopold I – Austrian Holy Roman Emperor 
1643 – 1727 Isaac Newton – English Physicist 
1672 – 1725 Peter the Great – Emperor of Russia
1660 – 1731 Daniel Defoe – English Writer & Trader
1667 – 1745 Jonathon Swift – Anglo-Irish Satirist & Essayist
1678 – 1741 Antonio Vivaldi – Italian Composer
1685 – 1750 J.S. Bach – German Composer
1685 – 1759 George Friderc Handel – German Composer
1689 – 1755 Baron de Montesquieu – French Lawyer& Philosopher
1694 – 1776 Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) – French Writer, Historian & Philosopher
1696 – 1770  Giovanni Tiepolo – Italian Rococo Painter

18th Century

1703 – 1791 John Wesley – English Theologian
1712 – 1786 Fredrick II the Great – King of Prussia
1712 – 1778 Jean Jaques Rousseau – Swiss Philosopher
1723 – 1790 Adam Smith – Scottish Social Philosopher
1724 – 1804 Immanuel Kant – German Philosopher
1725 – 1803 Arthur Guiness – Irish Brewer
1727 – 1788 Thomas Gainsborough – English Rococo / Romantic Painter
1728 – 1770 Pyotr Krenitsyn – Russian Explorer
1728 – 1779 James Cook – English Explorer
1729 – 1796 Catherine the Great – Emperor of Russia
1729 – 1797 Edmund Burke – Irish Statesman, economist & philosopher
1732 – 1809 Joseph Haydn – Austrian Composer
1736 – 1819 James Watt – Scottish Engineer, Inventor & Chemist
1741 – 1790 Joseph II Habsburg – Austrian Holy Roman Emperor
1743 – 1794 Antoine Laurent Lavoisier – French Chemist & Biologist
1743 – 1820 Joseph Banks – English Botanist
1745 – 1827 Alessandro Volta –  Italian Physicist
1746 – 1828 Francisco de Goya – Spanish Rococo / Romantic Painter & Printmaker
1749 – 1832 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – German Literary Author
1749 – 1823 Edward Jenner – English Physician
1756 – 1791 Wolfgang Mozart – Austrian Composer
1759 – 1805 Horatio Nelson – British Royal Navy Admiral
1759 – 1796 Robert Burns – Scottish Poet
1759 – 1833 William Wilberforce – British Anti-Salve Abolitionist
1759 – 1797 Mary Wollstonecraft – British Philosopher & Feminist
1760 – 1826 Thomas Clarkson – British Anti-Salve Abolitionist
1766 – 1844 John Dalton – English Chemist & Physicist
1770 – 1827 Ludwig van Beethoven – German Composer
1770 – 1850 William Wordsworth – English Poet
1771 – 1833 Richard Trevithick – British Mining Engineer
1769 – 1821 Napoleon Bonapart – French Military Leader & Emperor
1769 – 1852 Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington – Anglo-Irish Soldier
1770 – 1827 Ludwig van Beethoven – German Composer
1770 – 1850 William Wordsworth – English Poet
1775 – 1817 Jane Austen – English Author
1778 – 1863 Brothers Grimm – German Linguist Authors
1778 – 1829 Humphry Davy – Cornish Chemist
1781 – 1848 George Stephenson – English Civil Engineer
1787 – 1851 Louis Gaguerre – French Photographer
1788 – 1824 Lord Byron – English Poet
1790 – 1855 William Parry – English Explorer
1791 – 1867 Michael Faraday – English Electromagnetic & Electrochemistry Scientist
1791 – 1871 Charles Babbage – English Mathematician
1792 – 1822 Percy Shelley – English Poet
1792 – 1868 Gioacchino Rossini – Italian Composer
1795 – 1821 John Keats – English Poet
1797 – 1828 Franz Schubert – Austrian Composer
1799 – 1837 Alexander Pushkin – Russian Author
1799 – 1850 Honoré de Balzac – French Novelist and Playwright

19th Century

1802 – 1885 Victor Hugo – French Romantic Novelist, Poet & Dramatist
1802 – 1870 Alexander Dumas – French Romantic & Historical Fiction Writer
1803 – 1869 Hector Berlioz – French Composer
1804 – 1849 Johann Strauss –  Austrian Composer
1804 – 1881 Benjamin Disraeli – British Prime Minister to Queen Victoria
1805 – 1875 Hans Christian Andersen –  Danish Children’s & Travelogue Author
1806 – 1859 Isambard Kingdom Brunel – English Engineer
1806 – 1873 John Stuart Mill –  English Philosopher& Political Economist
1807 – 1882 Giuseppe Garibaldi – Italian Independence Leader
1809 – 1847 Felix Mendelssohn – German Composer
1809 – 1852 Louis Braille –  French Educator & Inventor
1809 – 1882 Charles Darwin – English Naturalist, Geologist & Biologist
1810 – 1849 Fryderyk Chopin – Polish Composer
1810 – 1856 Robert Schumann –  German Romantic Composer & Pianist
1811 – 1886 Franz Liszt – Hungarian Composer
1813 – 1873 David Livingstone – Scottish Physician & Missionary
1813 – 1883 Richard Wagner – German Composer
1813 – 1898 Henry Bessemer – English Inventor
1813 – 1901 Giuseppe Verdi – Italian Composer
1815 – 1894 Otto Von Bismarck – Prussian Statesman & 1st Chancellor of United a Germany
1816 – 1855 Charlotte Brontë – English Novelist & Poet
1818 – 1838 Emily Brontë – English Novelist & Poet
1818 – 1881 Alexander II – Emperor of Russia
1818 – 1883 Karl Marx – German Philosopher & Social Revolutionary
1819 – 1880 George Eliot – English Novelist, Poet & Journalist
1820 – 1910 Florence Nightingale – English Nurse & Social Reformer
1820 – 1878 Victor Emmanuel II – 1st King of a united Italy
1820 – 1895 Friedrich Engles – German Philosopher & Political Scientist
1821 – 1881 Fyodor Dostoyevsky – Russian Novelist
1821 – 1892 Louis Vuitton – French Designer & Businessman
1822 – 1895 Louis Pasteur – French Biologist & Chemist
1827 – 1912 Joseph Lister –  English Surgeon
1828 – 1910 Leo Tolstoy – Russian Realism Writer
1828 – 1905 Jules Verne – French Novelist
1831 – 1879 James Clerk Maxwell – Scottish Electromagnetism Physicist
1832 – 1883 Édouard Manet – French Realist / Impressionist Painter
1832 – 1898 Lewis Carroll –  English Mathematician & Author
1832 – 1923 Gustave Eiffel – French Engineer
1833 – 1896 Alfred Nobel – Swedish Chemist
1833 – 1897 Johannes Brahms – German Composer
1834 – 1900  Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler – German Industrial Engineer
1834 – 1917 Edgar Degas – French Realist / Impressionist Painter & Sculptor
1835 – 1919 Andrew Carnegie – Scottish Business Magnate & Industrialist
1835 – 1926 Thomas Burberry – English Designer
1838 – 1875 Georges Bizet – French Composer
1839 – 1881 Modest Mussorgsky – Russian Composer
1839 – 1906 Paul Cézanne – French Post-Impressionist Painter
1840 – 1893 Pyotr Tchaikovsky – Russian Composer
1840 – 1917 Auguste Rodin – French Sculptor
1840 – 1902 Émile Zola – French Novelist, Journalist, Playwright
1840 – 1926 Claude Monet – French Impressionist Painter
1840 – 1928 Thomas Hardy – English Novelist
1841 – 1904 Antonín Dvořák – Czech Composer
1841 – 1919 Pierre-Auguste Renior – French Impressionist Painter
1843 – 1907 Edvard Grieg – Norwegian Composer
1844 – 1900 Friedrich Nietzsche – German Philosopher
1844 – 1903 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov – Russian Composer
1844 – 1923 Sara Bernhardt – French Actor
1844 – 1929 Karl Benz – German Engineer
1847 – 1922 Alexander Graham Bell – Scottish Scientist
1847 – 1934 Paul von Hindenburg – German General & Chancellor
1848 – 1903 Paul Gauguin – French Post-Impressionist Painter
1850 – 1894 Robert Louis Stevenson – Scottish Novelist
1851 – 1929 Ferdinand Foch – French WWI Supreme Commander
1852 – 1926 Antonio Gaudi – Spanish Catalan Architect
1853 – 1890 Vincent van Gogh – Dutch Post-Impressionist Painter
1854 – 1900 Oscar Wilde – Irish Author
1856 – 1939 Sigmund Freud – Austrian Neurologist
1858 – 1913 Rudolf Diesel – German Engineer
1858 – 1924 Giacomo Puccini – Italian Opera Composer
1856 – 1943 Nikola Tesla – Serbian Inventor, Electrical & Mechanical Engineer
1856 – 1950 George Bernard Shaw – Irish English Playwright
1857 – 1924 Joseph Conrad – Polish-English Novelists
1858 – 1928 Emmeline Pankhurst – English Suffragette
1858 – 1947 Max Planck – German Quantum Physicist
1859 – 1891 Georges Seurat – French Pointillist Painter
1859 – 1930 Arthur Conan Doyle – English Writer
1859 – 1940  Édouard Michelin – French Tire Industrialist
1859 – 1941 Wilhelm II –  German Emperor of Prussia 
1860 – 1904 Anton Chekhov – Russian Physician/Writer
1860 – 1911 Gustav Mahler –  Austro-Bohemian Composer
1860 – 1926 Willem Einthoven – Dutch Physician
1861 – 1918 Gustav Klimt – Austrian Art Nouveau Painter
1862 – 1918 Claude Debussy – French Impressionist Composer
1863 – 1944 Edvard Munch – Norwegian Symbolist / Expressionist Painter
1864 – 1901 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – French Post-Impressionist Painter & Printmaker
1864 – 1909 Fernand Renault – French Automotive Industrialist
1865 – 1915 Edith Cavell – English Nurse
1865 – 1936 Rudyard Kipling – English Writer
1865 – 1939 W. B. Yeats –  Irish Poet and Dramatist 
1866 – 1944 Wassily Kandinsky – Russian born French Expressionist Painter
1866 – 1946 H.G.Wells – English Writer
1867 – 1934 Marie Currie – Polish French Physicist
1867 – 1946 Jeanne Lanvin – French Fashion Designer
1869 – 1954 Henri Matisse – French Fauvist Painter & Sculptor
1870 – 1924 Vladimir Lenin – Russian Revolutionary
1871 – 1922 Marcel Proust – French novelist, critic and essayist
1872 – 1903 Marcel Renault – French Automotive Industrialist
1872 – 1928 Roald Amundsen –  Norwegian Explorer
1872 – 1944 Piet Mondrian – Dutch Neo-Plasticist Painter 
1873 – 1897 St. Therese de Lisieux – French Nun & Spiritual Writer
1873 – 1921 Enrico Caruso – Italian Tenor
1873 – 1943 Sergei Rachmaninoff – Russian Composer
1874 – 1937 Guglielmo Marconi – Italian Inventor
1874 – 1965 Winston Churchill – British Prime Minister
1875 – 1937 Maurice Ravel – French Composer
1875 – 1951 Ferdinand Porsche – Austrian/German Automotive Engineer
1875 – 1965 Albert Schweitzer – German Theologian, Musician, Philosopher, & Physician
1876 – 1957 Constantin Brâncuși – Romanian Dada Sculptor
1876 – 1967 Konrad Adenauer – German Chancellor after WW II 
1876 – 1973 Pablo Casals – Spanish Catalan Cellist
1877- 1944  Louis Renault – French Automotive Industrialist
1878 – 1953 Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union Premier
1879 – 1955 Albert Einstein – German Physicist
1879 – 1970 E.M. Forster –  English fiction Writer, Essayist and Librettist
1881 – 1922 Marcel Proust – French Novelists & Essayist
1881 – 1938 Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk” – Founder of modern day Turkey
1881 – 1945 Béla Bartók – Hungarian Composer
1881 – 1953 Guccio Gucci – Italian Business Fashion Retailer
1881 – 1955 Alexander Fleming – Scottish Physician & Microbiologist
1881 – 1973 Pablo Picasso – Cubist Spanish Painter & Sculptor
1882 – 1941 Virginia Woolf – English Modernist Writer
1882 – 1941 James Joyce – Irish Novelist
1882 – 1971 Igor Stravinsky – Russian Composer, Pianist & Conductor
1883 – 1924 Franz Kafka – Czech German Writer
1883 – 1945 Benito Mussolini “Il Duce” – Italian Politian
1883 – 1969 Walter Gropius – German Architect
1883 – 1971 Coco Channel – French Designer
1885 – 1930 D.H. Lawrence – English Writer & Poet
1886 – 1969  Ludwig Mies van der Rohe – German Architect
1887 – 1965  Le Corbusier – Swiss French Architect, Urban Planner
1887 – 1989 Marc Chagall – Russian born French Painter & Stained Glass Artist
1888 – 1935 (T.E.) Lawrence of Arabia – English Archaeologist & Military Leader
1888 – 1954 Heinz Guderian – German General , pioneered the Blitzkrieg
1888 – 1965 T. S. Eliot –  British Essayist
1889 – 1945 Adolf Hitler – Austrian born German Nazi Leader
1889 – 1977 Charlie Chaplin – English Comic Actor
1890 – 1922 Michael Collins – Irish Revolutionary
1890 – 1970 Charles de Gaulle – President of France
1890 – 1973 Elsa Schiaparelli – Italian Fashion Designer
1890 – 1976 Agatha Christie –  English Writer
1891 – 1944 Erwin Rommel “The Desert Fox” – German General & Military Theorist
1891 – 1953 Sergei Prokofiev – Russian Composer
1892 – 1973 J.R.R.Tolkien – English Writer
1892 – 1976 John Paul Getty – British Petrol Industrialist
1892 – 1984 Martin Niemöller – German Anti-Nazi Lutheran Pastor
1893 – 1983 Joan Miró – Spanish Surrealist Painter & Sculptor
1894 – 1941 Maximilian Kolbe – Polish Priest & Refugee Rescuer
1898 – 1960 Salvatore Ferragamo – Italian Shoe Designer
1898 – 1963 C. S. Lewis – Irish Author
1898 – 1976 Alvar Aalto – Finnish Architect
1898 – 1988 Enzo Ferrari – Italian Motor Racer & Automotive Industrialist
1899 – 1980 Alfred Hitchcock – English Film Director & Producer

20th Century

1901 – 1948 Witold Pilecki – Polish Resistance Fighter in WWII
1901 – 1954 Enrico Fermi – Italian Physicist
1901 – 1992 Marlene Dietrich – German Actor & Entertainer
1903 – 1989 Valdimir Horowitz – Russian Pianist
1903 – 1950 George Orwell – English Novelist
1904 – 1989 Salvador Dali – Spanish Surrealist Painter
1905 – 1957 Christian Dior – French Fashion Designer
1905 – 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld – Swedish Secretary-General of the United Nations
1905 – 1980 Jean-Paul Sarte –  French Philosopher
1906 – 1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer – German Anti-Nazi Lutheran Pastor
1906 – 1975 Aristotle Socrates Onassis – Greek Shipping Magnate
1907 – 1989 Lawrence Olivier – English Actor & Director
1908 – 1974 Oskar Schindler –  German Industrialist & Refugee Rescuer
1908 – 2005 Simon Wiesenthal – Jewish Austrian Holocaust Survivor
1909 – 1992 Francis Bacon – Irish born British Expressionist Painter
1910 – 1961  Eero Saarinen – Finnish Architect & Industrial Designer
1910 – 1975 Dimitri Shostakovich – Russian Composer
1910 – 1997 Jacques Cousteau – French Explorer & Conservationist 
1910 – 1997 Mother Teresa – Albanian Missionary
1912 – 1947 Raoul Wallenberg –  Swedish Architect
1913 – 1992 Willy Brandt – German Chancellor
1913 – 2002 Per Anger – Swedish Diplomat
1914 – 1953 Dylan Thomas – Welsh Poet
1914 – 2000 Alec Guinness – English Actor
1914 – 2000 Heddy Lamarr – Austrian Actor & Inventor 
1915 – 1963 Édith Piaf – French Singer
1918 – 2008  Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Russian Novelist
1918 – 2008 Jørn Oberg Utzon – Danish Architect
1920 – 1993 Federico Fellini  – Italian Film Director & Writer
1920 – 2005 John Paul II – Polish Pope
1922 – xxxx  Pierre Cardin – Italian Fashion Designer
1921 – 2003 Gianni Agnelli – Italian Automotive Industrialist
1923 – 1977 Maria Callas – Greek Soprano Opera Singer
1923 – 2007  Marcel Marceau – French Actor & Mime Artists
1925 – 1980 Peter Sellers – British Actor & Comedian
1926 – 2000 Feodor Ingvar Kamprad – Swedish Business Magnate
1926 – xxxx Elizabeth II – Queen of the United Kingdom & Commonwealths
1927 – 2018 Hubert de Givenchy – French Fashion Designer
1928 – 1954 Alan Turing – English Mathematician & Theoretical Computer Scientist
1929 – 1945 Anne Frank – German Jewish Diarist
1931 – xxxx Mikhail Gorbachev – Leader & Reformer of the Soviet Union 
1933 – 2019 Karl Lagerfeld – German Designer, Photographer
1934 – xxxx Giorgio Armani – Italian Fashion Designer
1936 – 2008 Yves Saint Laurent – French Fashion Designer
1940 – 1980 John Lennon – British Musician / Composer
1942 – 2018 Stephan Hawking – English Physicist & Cosmologist
1942 – xxxx Paul McCartney – English Song Composer
1943 – xxxx Betty Williams – Northern Irish Peace Activist
1943 – xxxx Lech Walesa – Polish Solidarity Movement Leader
1947 – xxxx Salman Rushdie –  British-Indian Novelist and Essayist
1949 – xxxx Miuccia Prada – Italian Designer
1955 – xxxx Tim Berners-Lee –  English Computer Scientist

European Monarchies…

Crowned Jewels in the Tower of London

After the fall of the Roman Empire many areas of Europe were no longer subjugated to Roman rule. This vacuum was filled by those who sought the power and dominance to control the local areas throughout the continent. Those who were successful created their kingdoms form which to rule. Once an individual achieved power it was passed on to their direct descendants.

Over several centuries this creates a lust for more power and kingdoms would conquered other kingdoms creating some empires and family dynasties that would rule for centuries. For some during the age of exploration, that dominance and control would spread over the indigenous peoples of every continent. European nations and ethnic groups would clash with each other throughout the centuries to come. This all creates a fascinating and very complex history if not in some instances a troubling one. 

Today twelve monarchies still survive in European countries but, with limited powers. Andorra, Belgium, Denmark, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden & the United Kingdom are all constitutional governments except for the Vatican City State. While the Pope is elected he rules with absolute power. 

🇬🇧 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Monarchs of England & Great Britain…

House of Wessex

  • 886 – 899       Alfred the Great     (847-899)     Son of Æthelwulf of Wessex
  • 899 – 924       Edward the Elder     (874-924)     Son of Alfred
  • 924 – 939       Æthelstan     (894-939)     Son of Edward the Elder
  • 939 – 946       Edmund I     (921-946)    Son of Edward the Elder 
  • 946 – 955       Eadred     (923-955)     Son of Edward the Elder
  • 955 – 959       Eadwig     (940-959)     Son of Edmund I
  • 959 – 975       Edgar the Peaceful     (943-975)     Son of Edmund I
  • 975 – 978       Edward the Martyr     (962-978)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful
  • 978 – 1013     Ætherlred the Unready     (966-1016)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful

House of Denmark

  • 1013 – 1014     Sweyn     (960-1014)     Right of Conquest

House of Wessex (restored 1st time)

  • 1014 – 1016     Ætherlred the Unready     (966-1016)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful
  • 1016 – 1016     Edmund Ironside     (990-1016)     Son of Ætherlred

House of Denmark (restored)

  • 1016 – 1035     Canute the Great     (990-1035)     Son of Sweyn
  • 1035 – 1040     Harold Harefoot     (1016-1040)     Son of Canute
  • 1040 – 1042     Harthacnut     (1018-1042)     Son of Canute

House of Wessex (restored 2nd time)

  • 1042 – 1066     Edward the Confessor     (1003-1066)     Son of Ætherlred

House of Godwinson

  • 1066 – 1066     Harold Godwinson     (1022-1066)     named heir by Edward the Confessor. Elected by the Witenagemot

House of Normandy

  • 1066 – 1087     William I the Conqueror     (1028-1087)     Right of Conquest
  • 1087 – 1100     William II Rufus    (1056-1100)     Son of William I 
  • 1100 – 1135     Henry I Beauclerc     (1068-1135)   Son of William I 

House of Blois

  • 1135 – 1154     Stephen of Blois    (1092-1154)     Grandson of William I 

House of Anjou

  • 1154 – 1189     Henry II Curtmantle     (1133-1189)     Grandson of Henry I     
  • 1189 – 1199     Richard I the Lionhearted     (1157-1199)     Son of Henry II
  • 1199 – 1216     John      (1166-1216)     Son of Henry II

House of Plantagenet

  • 1216 – 1272     Henry III of Winchester     (1207-1272)     Son of John
  • 1272 – 1307     Edward I Longshanks     (1239-1307)     Son of Henry III
  • 1307 – 1327     Edward II of Caernarfon     (1284-1327)     Son of Edward II 
  • 1327 – 1377     Edward III     (1312-1377)     Son of Edward II 
  • 1377 – 1399     Richard II     (1367-1400)     Grandson of Edward III 

House of Lancaster

  • 1399 – 1413     Henry IV of Bolingbroke     (1367-1413)     Grandson of Edward III 
  • 1413 – 1422     Henry V     (1386-1422)     Son of Henry IV
  • 1422 – 1461     Henry VI     (1421-1417)     Son of Henry V 

House of York

  • 1461 – 1470     Edward IV     (1442-1483)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III 

House of Lancaster (restored)

  • 1470 – 1471     Henry VI (2nd reign)    (1421-1471)     Son of Henry V

House of York (restored)

  • 1471 – 1483     Edward IV     (1442-1483)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III 
  • 1483 – 1483     Edward V     (1470-1483)     Son of Edward IV
  • 1483 – 1485     Richard III     (1452-1485)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III

House of Tudor

  • 1485 – 1509     Henry VII     (1457-1509)     Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III
  • 1509 – 1547     Henry VIII     (1491-1553)     Son of Henry VII
  • 1547 – 1553     Edward VI     (1537-1553)     Son of Henry VIII
  • 1553 – 1553     Lady Jane Grey     (1537-1554)     Great-granddaughter of Henry VII
  • 1553 – 1558     Mary I Bloody Mary     (1516-1558)     Daughter of Henry VIII
  • 1554 – 1558     Philip     (1527-1598)     Husband of Mary I   
  • 1558 – 1603     Elizabeth I     (1533-1603)     Daughter of Henry VIII

House of Stuart

  • 1603 – 1625     James I     (1566-1625)     Great-great-grandson of Henry VII
  • 1625 – 1649     Charles I     (1600-1649)     Son of James I

Interregnum

  • 1653 – 1658     Oliver Cromwell     (1599-1658)     Assumed power after Coup d’etat of 1653 
  • 1658 – 1659     Richard Cromwell     (1626-1712)

House of Stuart (restored)

  • 1660 – 1685     Charles II     (1630-1685)     Son of Charles I
  • 1685 – 1688     James II     (1633-1701)     Son of Charles I
  • 1689 – 1694     Mary II     (1662-1694)     Daughter of James II 
  • 1689 – 1702     William III of Orange     (1650-1702)     Grandson of Charles I
  • 1702 – 1714     Anne     (1665-1714)     Daughter of James II

House of Hanover

  • 1714 – 1727     George I     (1660-1727)     Great-grandson of James I
  • 1727 – 1760     George II     (1683-1760)     Son of George I
  • 1760 – 1820     George III     (1738-1820)     Grandson of George II
  • 1820 – 1830     George IV     (1762-1830)     Son of George III
  • 1830 – 1837     William IV     (1765-1837)     Son of George III
  • 1837 – 1901     Victoria     (1819-1901)     Grandaughter of George III

House of Saxe-Coburg / Windsor

  • 1901 – 1910     Edward VII      (1841-1910)     Son of Queen Victoria  
  • 1910 – 1936     George V     (1865-1936)     Son of Edward VII
  • 1936 – 1936     Edward VIII     (1894-1972)     Son of George V
  • 1936 – 1952     George VI     (1895-1952)     Son of George V
  • 1952 – xxxx     Elizabeth II     (1926-xxxx)     Daughter of George VI
🇫🇷 Monarchs of France…

Mérovingien Dynasty

  • 509 – 511       Clovis I     (466-511)     Son of Childeric I

Carolingian Dynasty

  • 741 – 768         Pepin III the Short     (714-768)     Coup d’état against Merovingians
  • 768 – 814         Charles I the Great – Charlemagne     (-814)
  • 814 – 840         Louis I the Debonair of Aquitaine
  • 840 – 877         Charles II le Chauve     (823-877)     Son of Louis I
  • 877 – 879         Louis II the Stammerer     (846-879)     Son of Charles II
  • 879 – 882         Louis III     (863-882)     Son of Louis II
  • 882 – 884         Carolman II     (866-884)     Son of Louis II
  • 885 – 888         Charles III the Fat     (839-888)     Grandson of Louis I
  • 888 – 890         Odo of Paris     (857-898)     3rd Cousin of Louis II
  • 898 – 928         Charles III the Simple Son of Louis II
  • 922 – 923         Robert I     (866-923)     Robertian Dynasty      3rd Cousin of Louis II
  • 923 – 936         Rudolph     (890-936)     Bosonid Dynasty     Son in-law of Robert I

Kingdom of France

  • 936 – 954         Louis IV     (920-954)     Son of Charles III
  • 954 – 966         Lothaire     (941-986)     Son of Louis IV
  • 966 – 987         Louis V     (866-887)     Son of Lothaire

House of Capet

  • 987 – 996         Hugh Capet
  • 996 – 1031       Robert II the Pious
  • 1031 – 1060     Henry I
  • 1060 – 1108     Philip I the Armorous
  • 1108 – 1137     Louis VI the Fat
  • 1137 – 1180     Louis VII the Young
  • 1180 – 1223     Philip II Augustus
  • 1223 – 1226     Louis VIII the Lion
  • 1226 – 1270     Louis IX the Saint
  • 1270 – 1285     Philip III the Bold
  • 1285 – 1314     Philip IV the Fair
  • 1314 – 1316     Louis X the Quarreller
  • 1316 – 1316     John I Posthumous
  • 1316 – 1322     Philip V the Tall
  • 1322 – 1328     Charles IV the Fair  

House of Valois

  • 1328 – 1350     Philip VI the Fortunate     (1293-1350)     Grandson of Philip III
  • 1350 – 1364     John II the Good
  • 1364 – 1380     Charles V the Wise
  • 1380 – 1422     Charles VI the Beloved
  • 1422 – 1461     Charles VII the Victorious     (1403-1461)
  • 1461 – 1483     Louis XI the Prudent
  • 1483 – 1498     Charles VIII the Affable
  • 1498 – 1515     Louis XII Father of the People
  • 1515 – 1547     Francis I the Restorer of Letters
  • 1547 – 1559     Henry II
  • 1559 – 1560     Francis II
  • 1560 – 1574     Charles IX
  • 1574 – 1589     Henry III

House of Bourbon

  • 1589 – 1610     Henry IV Green Gallant     (1553-1610)     10th generation of Louis IX
  • 1610 – 1643     Louis XIII the Just     (1601-1643)     Son of Henry IV
  • 1643 – 1715     Louis XIV the Sun King     (1638-1715)     Son of Louis XIII
  • 1715 – 1774     Louis VX the Beloved     (1710-1774)     Greta Grandson of Louis XIV
  • 1774 – 1792     Louis XVI     (1754-1792)     Grandson of Louis VX   

House of Bonaparte – 1st Empire

  • 1804 – 1814     Napoleon I     (1769-1821)     Assumed power after 1st French Republic

Capetian Dynasty

  • 1814 – 1815     Louis XVIII the Desired     (1755-1824)     Grandson of Louis XV

House of Bonaparte – 1st Empire

  • 1815 – 1815     Napoleon I     (1769-1821)     Regained power for 100 Days  

House of Bourbon

  • 1815 – 1824     Louis XVIII the Desired     (1755-1824)     Grandson of Louis XV
  • 1824 – 1830     Charles X     (1757-1836)     Grandson of Louis XV

House of Orleans

  • 1830 – 1870     Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King     (1773-1850)     6th generation of Louis XIII

House of Bonaparte – 2nd Empire

  • 1852 – 1870     Napoleon III     (1808-1873)     Nephew of Napoleon I 
🇩🇪 Monarchs of Germany & Prussia…

Carolingians

  • 843 – 876 Louis the German
  • 876 – 880 Carloman
  • 876 – 882 Louis the Younger
  • 876 – 887 Charles the Fat
  • 887 – 899 Arnulf of Carinthia
  • 900 – 911 Louis the Child

Conradine dynasty

  • 911 – 918 Conrad I

Ottonian Dynasty

  • 919 – 936 Henry I the Fowler
  • 919 – 921 Arnulf the Bad
Holy Roman Empire
  • 962 – 973     Otto I the Great   
  • 973 – 983 Otto II the Red
  • 983 – 1002 Otto III
  • 1002 – 1024 Henry II

Salian dynasty

  • 1024 – 1039 Conrad II
  • 1046 – 1056 Henry III
  • 1084 – 1105 Henry IV
  • 1077 – 1080 Rudolph of Rheinfelden
  • 1081 – 1088 Herman of Salm
  • 1087 – 1101 Konrad
  • 1111 – 1125 Henry V

Supplinburger dynasty

  • 1125 – 1137 Lothair III

Hohenstaufen & Welf

  • 1138 – 1152 Conrad III
  • 1152 – 1190 Frederick I Barbarossa
  • 1191 – 1197 Henry VI
  • 1197 – 1197 Frederick II
  • 1198 – 1208 Philip of Swabia
  • 1209 – 1215 Otto IV
  • 1220 – 1250 Frederick II
  • 1220 – 1235 Henry (King only)
  • 1237 – 1254 Conrad IV

Interregnum

Changing Dynasties

  • 1273 – 1291 Rudolf 1 – Habsburg
  • 1292 – 1298 Adold of Nassau
  • 1298 – 1308 Aober 1 – Habsburg
  • 1308 – 1313 Henry VII – Luxembourg
  • 1314 – 1347 Louis IV – Wittelsbach
  • 1314 – 1330 Frederick the Fair – Habsburg
  • 1346 – 1378 Charles IV – Luxembourg
  • 1349 – 1349 Günther von Schwarzburg
  • 1376 – 1400 Wenceslaus – Luxembourg
  • 1400 – 1410 Rupert of the Palatinate – Wittelsbach
  • 1410 – 1437 Sigismund – Luxembourg
  • 1410 – 1411 Jobst of Moravia – Luxembourg

Habsburg

  • 1438 – 1439 Albert II
  • 1440 – 1493 Frederick III
  • 1486 – 1519 Maximillian I
  • 1519 – 1556 Charles V
  • 1556 – 1564 Ferdinand I
  • 1564 – 1576 Maximillian II
  • 1576 – 1612 Rudolf II
  • 1612 – 1619 Matthias
  • 1619 – 1637 Ferdinand II
  • 1637 – 1657 Ferdinand III
  • 1653 – 1654 Ferdinand IV
  • 1658 – 1705 Leopold I
  • 1705 – 1711 Joseph I
  • 1711 – 1740 Charles VI
  • 1742 – 1745 Charles VII
  • 1745 – 1780 Maria Theresa
  • 1745 – 1765 Francis I
  • 1765 – 1790 Joseph II
  • 1790 – 1792 Leopold II
  • 1792 – 1806 Francis II

Confederation of the Rhine 1806 -1813

  • 1806 – 1813 Naploeon I

German Confederation

  • 1525 – 1568 Albert
  • 1568 – 1618 Albert Frederick
  • 1618 – 1619 John Sigismund
  • 1619 – 1640 George William
  • 1640 – 1688 Frederick William the Great Elector
  • 1688 – 1701 Frederick I

Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918)…

  • 1701 – 1713 Frederick I
  • 1713 – 1740 Frederick William I
  • 1740 – 1786 Frederick II the Great
  • 1786 – 1797 Frederick William II
  • 1797 – 1840 Frederick William III
  • 1840 – 1861 Frederick William IV
  • 1861 – 1888 William I
  • 1888 – 1888 Frederick III
  • 1888 – 1918 William II
🇳🇱 Monarchs of the Netherlands…

House of Orange-Nassau

Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)

Principality of the Netherlands (1813–1815)

Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–present)

  • 1980 – 2013 Beatrix (1938-xxxx)
  • 2013 – xxxx William-Alexander (1967-xxxx)
🇵🇱 Monarchs of Poland…

Piast Dynasty

  • 9th Century Piast
  • 965 – 991 Meiszko I
  • 992 – 1025 Bolesław I
  • 1025 – 1037 Mieszko II
  • 1038 – 1058 Casim ir I
  • 1058 – 1079 Bolesław II
  • 1079 – 1102 Władysław Herman
  • 1102 – 1138 Bolesław III
  • 1138 – 1146 Władysław II
  • 1146 – 1177 Bolesław IV
  • 1173 – 1177 Mieszko III
  • 1177 – 1194 Casimir II
  • 1194 – 1202 Mieszko the Elder
  • 1202 – 1227 Lesyek the White
  • 1228 – 1231 Władysław III
  • 1231 – 1238 Henry I of Silesia
  • 1238 – 1241 Henry II of Silesia
  • 1241 – 1243 Konrad I Mazowiecki
  • 1243 – 1279 Bolesław V
  • 1279 – 1288 Leszek the Black
  • 1288 – 1290 Henry IV of Silesia
  • 1290 – 1300 Przemysl I
  • 1300 – 1306 Vaclav II
  • 1306 – 1333 Władysław 1
  • 1333 – 1370 Casimir III the Great

Angevin Dynasty

  • 1370 – 1382 Louis of Anjou King of Hungary
  • 1384 – 1386 Jadwiga of Anjou

Jagiellonian Dynasty

  • 1386 – 1434 Władysław Jagiełło
  • 1434 – 1444 Władysław III of Varna
  • 1444 – 1492 Kazimierz IV
  • 1492 – 1501 Jan Olbracht
  • 1501 – 1506 Alexander
  • 1506 – 1548 Sigismund I
  • 1548 – 1572 Sigismund II

Elected Kings of Rzeczpospolita

  • 1573 – 1574 Henrz de Valois of France
  • 1576 – 1586 Stefan Bathorz
  • 1587 – 1632 Sigismund III
  • 1632 – 1648 Władysław IV
  • 1648 – 1668 Jan Kazimierz
  • 1669 – 1673 Michał Korybut Wisinowiecki
  • 1674 – 1696 Jan III Sobieski
  • 1697 – 1704 Augustus II
  • 1704 – 1710 Stanisław Leszczyński
  • 1710 – 1763 Augustus II
  • 1764 – 1795 Stanisławż August Poniatowski
🇵🇹 Monarchs of Portugal…

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)

House of Aviz (1385–1580)

House of Habsburg (1581–1640)

House of Braganza (1640–1910)

  • 1908 – 1910 Manuel II (1889-1932)
🇷🇺 Monarchs of Russia…
Kievan Rus

Rurikid Dynasty

  • 862 – 879     Rurik
  • 880 – 880     Oleg
  • 912 – 945     Igor
  • 945 – 969    Olga, St.
  • 969 – 980     Sviatoslav
  • 980 – 1015     Vladimir, St.
  • 1019 – 1054     Yarolslav the Wise
  • 1113 – 1125     Vladimir Monomakh
  • 1157 – 1174     Andrei Bogoliubskii
  • 1178 – 1202     Igor of Sever
  • 1240 – 1263     Alexander Nevskii
  • 1235 – 1265     Daniel Romanowicz
Muscovy

Grand Dukes of Moscow

  • 1305 – 1340     Ivan I Kalita
  • 1350 – 1389     Dmitri Donskoi
  • 1389 – 1425     Vassili I
  • 1425 – 1462     Vassily II

Tsars of Moscow and all of Russia (from 1473)

  • 1462 – 1505    Ivan III the Great 
  • 1505 – 1533     Vasili III
  • 1533 – 1584     Ivan IV the Terrible
  • 1584 – 1598     Feodor I
  • 1598 – 1605     Boris Godunov
  • 1606 – 1605     Feodor II
  • 1605 – 1606     Dmitri I
  • 1606 – 1610     Vasili Shuiski
  • 1608 – 1610     Dmitri II

Romanov Dynasty

  • 1613 – 1645     Mikhail Romanov
  • 1645 – 1676     Alexei
  • 1676 – 1682     Feodor III
  • 1682 – 1689     Ivan V

Emperors of Russia (from 1721)

  • 1689 – 1725     Peter I the Great
  • 1725 – 1727     Catherine I
  • 1727 – 1730     Peter II
  • 1730 – 1740     Anne
  • 1741 – 1761     Elizabeth
  • 1761 – 1762     Peter III
  • 1762 – 1796     Catherine II the Great
  • 1796 – 1801     Paul 
  • 1801 – 1825     Alexander I
  • 1825 – 1855     Nicholas I
  • 1855 – 1881     Alexander II
  • 1881 – 1894     Alexander III
  • 1894 – 1917     Nicholas II
🇪🇸 Monarchs of Spain…

House of Trastámara

  • 1474 – 1504     Isabella I     (1451-1504)     Daughter of John II of Castile 
  • 1475 – 1516     Ferdinand V     (1452-1516)     Son of John II of Aragon 
  • 1505 – 1555 Joanna the Mad (1479-1555)
  • 1506 – 1506 Philip I (1478-1506)

House of Habsburg

  • 1516 – 1556 Charles I (1500-1558)
  • 1556 – 1598 Philip II (1527-1598)
  • 1598 – 1621 Philip III (1578-1621)
  • 1621 – 1665 Philip IV (1605-1665)
  • 1665 – 1700 Charles II (1661-1700)

House of Bourbon

  • 1700 – 1724 Philip V (1683-1746)
  • 1724 – 1724 Louis I (1707-1724)
  • 1724 – 1746 Philip V (1683-1746)
  • 1746 – 1759 Ferdinand VI (1713-1759)
  • 1759 – 1788 Charles III (1716-1788)
  • 1788 – 1808 Charles IV (1748-1819)
  • 1808 – 1808 Ferdinand VII (1784-1833)

House of Bonaparte

  • 1808 – 1813 Joseph I (1768-1844)

House of Bourbon (1813-1868)

  • 1813 – 1833 Ferdinand VII (1784-1833)
  • 1833 – 1868 Isabella II (1833-1868)

House of Savoy

  • 1870 – 1873 Amadeo I (1845-1890)

House of Bourbon (1874-1931)

  • 1874 – 1885 Alfonso XII (1857-1885)
  • 1886 – 1931 Alfonso XIII (1886-1941)

House of Bourbon (1975 – present)

  • 1975 – 2014 Juan Carlos I (1938-xxxx)
  • 2014 – xxxx Felipe VI (1968-xxxx)
🇸🇪 Monarchs of Sweden…

House of Munsö

  • 970 – 995         Eric the Victorious     (945-995)

House of Vasa

  • 1523 -1560 Gustav I (1496-1560)
  • 1560 – 1568 Eric XIV (1533-1577)
  • 1568 – 1592 John III (1537-1592)
  • 1592 – 1599 Sigismund (1566-1632)
  • 1604 – 1611 Charles IX (1550-1611)
  • 1611 – 1632 Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632)
  • 1632 – 1654 Christina (1626-1689)

House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken

  • 1654 – 1660 Charles X Gustav (1622-1660)
  • 1660 – 1697 Charles XI (1655-1697)
  • 1697 – 1718 Charles XII (1682-1718)
  • 1718 – 1720 Ulrica Eleanor (1688-1741)

House of Hesse

  • 1720 – 1751 Frederick I of Sweden (1676-1751)

House of Holstein-Gottorp

  • 1751 – 1771 Adolf Fredrik (1710-1771)
  • 1771 – 1792 Gustav III (1746-1792)
  • 1792 – 1809 Gustav IV Adolf (1778-1809)
  • 1809 – 1818 Charles XIII (1748-1818)

House of Bernadotte

  • 1818 – 1844 Charles XIV John (1763-1844)
  • 1844 – 1859 Oscar I (1799-1859)
  • 1859 – 1872 Charles XV (1826-1872)
  • 1872 – 1907 Oscar II (1829-1907)
  • 1907 – 1950 Gustaf V (1858-1950)
  • 1950 – 1973 Gustaf VI Adolf (1882-1973)
  • 1973 – xxxx     Carl VXI Gustaf     (1946-xxxx)     Son of Gustav Adolf