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About Europe

European Monarchies

After the fall of the Roman Empire many areas of Europe were no longer subjugated to Roman rule. This vacuum was filled by those who sought the power and dominance to control the local areas throughout the continent. Those who were successful created their kingdoms form which to rule. Once an individual achieved power it was passed on to their direct descendants.

Over several centuries this creates a lust for more power and kingdoms would conquered other kingdoms creating some empires and family dynasties that would rule for centuries. For some during the age of exploration, that dominance and control would spread over the indigenous peoples of every continent. European nations and ethnic groups would clash with each other throughout the centuries to come. This all creates a fascinating and very complex history if not in some instances a troubling one. 

Today twelve monarchies still survive in European countries but, with limited powers. Andorra, Belgium, Denmark, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden & the United Kingdom are all constitutional governments except for the Vatican City State. While the Pope is elected he rules with absolute power. 

🇬🇧 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿 Monarchs of England & Great Britain…

House of Wessex

  • 886 – 899       Alfred the Great     (847-899)     Son of Æthelwulf of Wessex
  • 899 – 924       Edward the Elder     (874-924)     Son of Alfred
  • 924 – 939       Æthelstan     (894-939)     Son of Edward the Elder
  • 939 – 946       Edmund I     (921-946)    Son of Edward the Elder 
  • 946 – 955       Eadred     (923-955)     Son of Edward the Elder
  • 955 – 959       Eadwig     (940-959)     Son of Edmund I
  • 959 – 975       Edgar the Peaceful     (943-975)     Son of Edmund I
  • 975 – 978       Edward the Martyr     (962-978)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful
  • 978 – 1013     Ætherlred the Unready     (966-1016)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful

House of Denmark

  • 1013 – 1014     Sweyn     (960-1014)     Right of Conquest

House of Wessex (restored 1st time)

  • 1014 – 1016     Ætherlred the Unready     (966-1016)     Son of Edgar the Peaceful
  • 1016 – 1016     Edmund Ironside     (990-1016)     Son of Ætherlred

House of Denmark (restored)

  • 1016 – 1035     Canute the Great     (990-1035)     Son of Sweyn
  • 1035 – 1040     Harold Harefoot     (1016-1040)     Son of Canute
  • 1040 – 1042     Harthacnut     (1018-1042)     Son of Canute

House of Wessex (restored 2nd time)

  • 1042 – 1066     Edward the Confessor     (1003-1066)     Son of Ætherlred

House of Godwinson

  • 1066 – 1066     Harold Godwinson     (1022-1066)     named heir by Edward the Confessor. Elected by the Witenagemot

House of Normandy

  • 1066 – 1087     William I the Conqueror     (1028-1087)     Right of Conquest
  • 1087 – 1100     William II Rufus    (1056-1100)     Son of William I 
  • 1100 – 1135     Henry I Beauclerc     (1068-1135)   Son of William I 

House of Blois

  • 1135 – 1154     Stephen of Blois    (1092-1154)     Grandson of William I 

House of Anjou

  • 1154 – 1189     Henry II Curtmantle     (1133-1189)     Grandson of Henry I     
  • 1189 – 1199     Richard I the Lionhearted     (1157-1199)     Son of Henry II
  • 1199 – 1216     John      (1166-1216)     Son of Henry II

House of Plantagenet

  • 1216 – 1272     Henry III of Winchester     (1207-1272)     Son of John
  • 1272 – 1307     Edward I Longshanks     (1239-1307)     Son of Henry III
  • 1307 – 1327     Edward II of Caernarfon     (1284-1327)     Son of Edward II 
  • 1327 – 1377     Edward III     (1312-1377)     Son of Edward II 
  • 1377 – 1399     Richard II     (1367-1400)     Grandson of Edward III 

House of Lancaster

  • 1399 – 1413     Henry IV of Bolingbroke     (1367-1413)     Grandson of Edward III 
  • 1413 – 1422     Henry V     (1386-1422)     Son of Henry IV
  • 1422 – 1461     Henry VI     (1421-1417)     Son of Henry V 

House of York

  • 1461 – 1470     Edward IV     (1442-1483)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III 

House of Lancaster (restored)

  • 1470 – 1471     Henry VI (2nd reign)    (1421-1471)     Son of Henry V

House of York (restored)

  • 1471 – 1483     Edward IV     (1442-1483)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III 
  • 1483 – 1483     Edward V     (1470-1483)     Son of Edward IV
  • 1483 – 1485     Richard III     (1452-1485)     Great-great-grandson of Edward III

House of Tudor

  • 1485 – 1509     Henry VII     (1457-1509)     Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III
  • 1509 – 1547     Henry VIII     (1491-1553)     Son of Henry VII
  • 1547 – 1553     Edward VI     (1537-1553)     Son of Henry VIII
  • 1553 – 1553     Lady Jane Grey     (1537-1554)     Great-granddaughter of Henry VII
  • 1553 – 1558     Mary I Bloody Mary     (1516-1558)     Daughter of Henry VIII
  • 1554 – 1558     Philip     (1527-1598)     Husband of Mary I   
  • 1558 – 1603     Elizabeth I     (1533-1603)     Daughter of Henry VIII

House of Stuart

  • 1603 – 1625     James I     (1566-1625)     Great-great-grandson of Henry VII
  • 1625 – 1649     Charles I     (1600-1649)     Son of James I

Interregnum

  • 1653 – 1658     Oliver Cromwell     (1599-1658)     Assumed power after Coup d’etat of 1653 
  • 1658 – 1659     Richard Cromwell     (1626-1712)

House of Stuart (restored)

  • 1660 – 1685     Charles II     (1630-1685)     Son of Charles I
  • 1685 – 1688     James II     (1633-1701)     Son of Charles I
  • 1689 – 1694     Mary II     (1662-1694)     Daughter of James II 
  • 1689 – 1702     William III of Orange     (1650-1702)     Grandson of Charles I
  • 1702 – 1714     Anne     (1665-1714)     Daughter of James II

House of Hanover

  • 1714 – 1727     George I     (1660-1727)     Great-grandson of James I
  • 1727 – 1760     George II     (1683-1760)     Son of George I
  • 1760 – 1820     George III     (1738-1820)     Grandson of George II
  • 1820 – 1830     George IV     (1762-1830)     Son of George III
  • 1830 – 1837     William IV     (1765-1837)     Son of George III
  • 1837 – 1901     Victoria     (1819-1901)     Grandaughter of George III

House of Saxe-Coburg / Windsor

  • 1901 – 1910     Edward VII      (1841-1910)     Son of Queen Victoria  
  • 1910 – 1936     George V     (1865-1936)     Son of Edward VII
  • 1936 – 1936     Edward VIII     (1894-1972)     Son of George V
  • 1936 – 1952     George VI     (1895-1952)     Son of George V
  • 1952 – xxxx     Elizabeth II     (1926-xxxx)     Daughter of George VI
🇫🇷 Monarchs of France…

Mérovingien Dynasty

  • 509 – 511       Clovis I     (466-511)     Son of Childeric I

Carolingian Dynasty

  • 741 – 768         Pepin III the Short     (714-768)     Coup d’état against Merovingians
  • 768 – 814         Charles I the Great – Charlemagne     (-814)
  • 814 – 840         Louis I the Debonair of Aquitaine
  • 840 – 877         Charles II le Chauve     (823-877)     Son of Louis I
  • 877 – 879         Louis II the Stammerer     (846-879)     Son of Charles II
  • 879 – 882         Louis III     (863-882)     Son of Louis II
  • 882 – 884         Carolman II     (866-884)     Son of Louis II
  • 885 – 888         Charles III the Fat     (839-888)     Grandson of Louis I
  • 888 – 890         Odo of Paris     (857-898)     3rd Cousin of Louis II
  • 898 – 928         Charles III the Simple Son of Louis II
  • 922 – 923         Robert I     (866-923)     Robertian Dynasty      3rd Cousin of Louis II
  • 923 – 936         Rudolph     (890-936)     Bosonid Dynasty     Son in-law of Robert I
Kingdom of France
  • 936 – 954         Louis IV     (920-954)     Son of Charles III
  • 954 – 966         Lothaire     (941-986)     Son of Louis IV
  • 966 – 987         Louis V     (866-887)     Son of Lothaire

House of Capet

  • 987 – 996         Hugh Capet
  • 996 – 1031       Robert II the Pious
  • 1031 – 1060     Henry I
  • 1060 – 1108     Philip I the Armorous
  • 1108 – 1137     Louis VI the Fat
  • 1137 – 1180     Louis VII the Young
  • 1180 – 1223     Philip II Augustus
  • 1223 – 1226     Louis VIII the Lion
  • 1226 – 1270     Louis IX the Saint
  • 1270 – 1285     Philip III the Bold
  • 1285 – 1314     Philip IV the Fair
  • 1314 – 1316     Louis X the Quarreller
  • 1316 – 1316     John I Posthumous
  • 1316 – 1322     Philip V the Tall
  • 1322 – 1328     Charles IV the Fair  

House of Valois

  • 1328 – 1350     Philip VI the Fortunate     (1293-1350)     Grandson of Philip III
  • 1350 – 1364     John II the Good
  • 1364 – 1380     Charles V the Wise
  • 1380 – 1422     Charles VI the Beloved
  • 1422 – 1461     Charles VII the Victorious     (1403-1461)
  • 1461 – 1483     Louis XI the Prudent
  • 1483 – 1498     Charles VIII the Affable
  • 1498 – 1515     Louis XII Father of the People
  • 1515 – 1547     Francis I the Restorer of Letters
  • 1547 – 1559     Henry II
  • 1559 – 1560     Francis II
  • 1560 – 1574     Charles IX
  • 1574 – 1589     Henry III

House of Bourbon

  • 1589 – 1610     Henry IV Green Gallant     (1553-1610)     10th generation of Louis IX
  • 1610 – 1643     Louis XIII the Just     (1601-1643)     Son of Henry IV
  • 1643 – 1715     Louis XIV the Sun King     (1638-1715)     Son of Louis XIII
  • 1715 – 1774     Louis VX the Beloved     (1710-1774)     Greta Grandson of Louis XIV
  • 1774 – 1792     Louis XVI     (1754-1792)     Grandson of Louis VX   

House of Bonaparte – 1st Empire

  • 1804 – 1814     Napoleon I     (1769-1821)     Assumed power after 1st French Republic

Capetian Dynasty

  • 1814 – 1815     Louis XVIII the Desired     (1755-1824)     Grandson of Louis XV

House of Bonaparte – 1st Empire

  • 1815 – 1815     Napoleon I     (1769-1821)     Regained power for 100 Days  

House of Bourbon

  • 1815 – 1824     Louis XVIII the Desired     (1755-1824)     Grandson of Louis XV
  • 1824 – 1830     Charles X     (1757-1836)     Grandson of Louis XV

House of Orleans

  • 1830 – 1870     Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King     (1773-1850)     6th generation of Louis XIII

House of Bonaparte – 2nd Empire

  • 1852 – 1870     Napoleon III     (1808-1873)     Nephew of Napoleon I 
🇩🇪 Monarchs of Germany & Prussia…

Carolingians

  • 843 – 876 Louis the German
  • 876 – 880 Carloman
  • 876 – 882 Louis the Younger
  • 876 – 887 Charles the Fat
  • 887 – 899 Arnulf of Carinthia
  • 900 – 911 Louis the Child

Conradine dynasty

  • 911 – 918 Conrad I

Ottonian Dynasty

  • 919 – 936 Henry I the Fowler
  • 919 – 921 Arnulf the Bad
Holy Roman Empire
  • 962 – 973     Otto I the Great   
  • 973 – 983 Otto II the Red
  • 983 – 1002 Otto III
  • 1002 – 1024 Henry II

Salian dynasty

  • 1024 – 1039 Conrad II
  • 1046 – 1056 Henry III
  • 1084 – 1105 Henry IV
  • 1077 – 1080 Rudolph of Rheinfelden
  • 1081 – 1088 Herman of Salm
  • 1087 – 1101 Konrad
  • 1111 – 1125 Henry V

Supplinburger dynasty

  • 1125 – 1137 Lothair III

Hohenstaufen & Welf

  • 1138 – 1152 Conrad III
  • 1152 – 1190 Frederick I Barbarossa
  • 1191 – 1197 Henry VI
  • 1197 – 1197 Frederick II
  • 1198 – 1208 Philip of Swabia
  • 1209 – 1215 Otto IV
  • 1220 – 1250 Frederick II
  • 1220 – 1235 Henry (King only)
  • 1237 – 1254 Conrad IV

Duchy of Prussia

Interregnum

Habsburg & Nassau

Luxembourg & Wittelsbach

Habsburg

Wittlesbach

Habsburg-Lorriane

Confederation of the Rhine

German Confederation

  • 1525 – 1568 Albert
  • 1568 – 1618 Albert Frederick
  • 1618 – 1619 John Sigismund
  • 1619 – 1640 George William
  • 1640 – 1688 Frederick William the Great Elector
  • 1688 – 1701 Frederick I

Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918)…

  • 1701 – 1713 Frederick I
  • 1713 – 1740 Frederick William I
  • 1740 – 1786 Frederick II the Great
  • 1786 – 1797 Frederick William II
  • 1797 – 1840 Frederick William III
  • 1840 – 1861 Frederick William IV
  • 1861 – 1888 William I
  • 1888 – 1888 Frederick III
  • 1888 – 1918 William II
🇳🇱 Monarchs of the Netherlands…
🇵🇱 Monarchs of Poland…

Piast Dynasty

  • 9th Century Piast
  • 965 – 991 Meiszko I
  • 992 – 1025 Bolesław I
  • 1025 – 1037 Mieszko II
  • 1038 – 1058 Casim ir I
  • 1058 – 1079 Bolesław II
  • 1079 – 1102 Władysław Herman
  • 1102 – 1138 Bolesław III
  • 1138 – 1146 Władysław II
  • 1146 – 1177 Bolesław IV
  • 1173 – 1177 Mieszko III
  • 1177 – 1194 Casimir II
  • 1194 – 1202 Mieszko the Elder
  • 1202 – 1227 Lesyek the White
  • 1228 – 1231 Władysław III
  • 1231 – 1238 Henry I of Silesia
  • 1238 – 1241 Henry II of Silesia
  • 1241 – 1243 Konrad I Mazowiecki
  • 1243 – 1279 Bolesław V
  • 1279 – 1288 Leszek the Black
  • 1288 – 1290 Henry IV of Silesia
  • 1290 – 1300 Przemysl I
  • 1300 – 1306 Vaclav II
  • 1306 – 1333 Władysław 1
  • 1333 – 1370 Casimir III the Great

Angevin Dynasty

  • 1370 – 1382 Louis of Anjou King of Hungary
  • 1384 – 1386 Jadwiga of Anjou

Jagiellonian Dynasty

  • 1386 – 1434 Władysław Jagiełło
  • 1434 – 1444 Władysław III of Varna
  • 1444 – 1492 Kazimierz IV
  • 1492 – 1501 Jan Olbracht
  • 1501 – 1506 Alexander
  • 1506 – 1548 Sigismund I
  • 1548 – 1572 Sigismund II
Elected Kings of Rzeczpospolita
  • 1573 – 1574 Henrz de Valois of France
  • 1576 – 1586 Stefan Bathorz
  • 1587 – 1632 Sigismund III
  • 1632 – 1648 Władysław IV
  • 1648 – 1668 Jan Kazimierz
  • 1669 – 1673 Michał Korybut Wisinowiecki
  • 1674 – 1696 Jan III Sobieski
  • 1697 – 1704 Augustus II
  • 1704 – 1710 Stanisław Leszczyński
  • 1710 – 1763 Augustus II
  • 1764 – 1795 Stanisławż August Poniatowski
🇵🇹 Monarchs of Portugal…
🇷🇺 Monarchs of Russia…
Kievan Rus

Rurikid Dynasty

  • 862 – 879     Rurik
  • 880 – 880     Oleg
  • 912 – 945     Igor
  • 945 – 969    Olga, St.
  • 969 – 980     Sviatoslav
  • 980 – 1015     Vladimir, St.
  • 1019 – 1054     Yarolslav the Wise
  • 1113 – 1125     Vladimir Monomakh
  • 1157 – 1174     Andrei Bogoliubskii
  • 1178 – 1202     Igor of Sever
  • 1240 – 1263     Alexander Nevskii
  • 1235 – 1265     Daniel Romanowicz
Muscovy

Grand Dukes of Moscow

  • 1305 – 1340     Ivan I Kalita
  • 1350 – 1389     Dmitri Donskoi
  • 1389 – 1425     Vassili I
  • 1425 – 1462     Vassily II

Tsars of Moscow and all of Russia (from 1473)

  • 1462 – 1505     Ivan III the Great 
  • 1505 – 1533     Vasili III
  • 1533 – 1584     Ivan IV the Terrible
  • 1584 – 1598     Feodor I
  • 1598 – 1605     Boris Godunov
  • 1606 – 1605     Feodor II
  • 1605 – 1606     Dmitri I
  • 1606 – 1610     Vasili Shuiski
  • 1608 – 1610     Dmitri II

Romanov Dynasty

  • 1613 – 1645     Mikhail Romanov
  • 1645 – 1676     Alexei
  • 1676 – 1682     Feodor III
  • 1682 – 1689     Ivan V

Emperors of Russia (from 1721)

  • 1689 – 1725     Peter I the Great
  • 1725 – 1727     Catherine I
  • 1727 – 1730     Peter II
  • 1730 – 1740     Anne
  • 1741 – 1761     Elizabeth
  • 1761 – 1762     Peter III
  • 1762 – 1796     Catherine II the Great
  • 1796 – 1801     Paul 
  • 1801 – 1825     Alexander I
  • 1825 – 1855     Nicholas I
  • 1855 – 1881     Alexander II
  • 1881 – 1894     Alexander III
  • 1894 – 1917     Nicholas II
🇪🇸 Monarchs of Spain…
  • 1474 – 1504     Isabella I     (1451-1504)     Daughter of John II of Castile 
  • 1475 – 1516     Ferdinand V     (1452-1516)     Son of John II of Aragon 
🇸🇪 Monarchs of Sweden…

House of Munsö

  • 970 – 995         Eric the Victorious     (945-995)
  • 1611 – 1632     Gustavus Adolphus    (1594-1632)
  • 1809 – 1818     Charles XIII     (1748-1818)

House of Bernadotte

  • 1973 – xxxx     Carl VXI Gustaf     (1946-xxxx)     Son of Gustav Adolf